P2P Validator

19 posts
RPC Node What is an RPC Node?

<p></p><p>Remote procedure call (RPC) is one of the critical tools of the blockchain ecosystem. With the help of RPC, it is possible to implement almost any service based on blockchain data.</p><p>Decentralized applications (dApps), require access to a huge amount of information from the blockchain. This can be in the form of historical data, transaction history, node connections, block numbers, etc. and to access this data, it is necessary to query the blockchain.</p><p>There are several reasons why having  a dedicated RPC node is a good idea:</p><ul><li>Control: Full control over the node and its data can be gained, which allows customization to suit specific needs such as configuring it to store more historical data than a typical node.</li><li>Security: As complete visibility and control over the node and its data is achieved, this translates to an increase in security. This can assist in preventing unauthorized access to the data and reducing the risk of data breaches.</li><li>Privacy: Complete privacy can be achieved since the data is not shared with third parties.</li><li>Independence: Dependency on a third party can be avoided, which can help ensure continuity of service, even in the event of third-party nodes going offline or becoming unavailable.</li><li>Performance: Improved performance can be achieved through direct control over the resources available to the node.</li><li>Compliance: Compliance with regulations or data privacy laws may require a dedicated node in some industries or regions.<br></li></ul><p>Overall, running your own RPC Ethereum node can provide greater control, security, privacy, independence, performance and compliance for your specific needs.</p><p>However, doing it yourself would require a lot of DevOps team resources. Not only for deploying the solution, but also for further maintenance. That's why it's often better to turn to professionals on this issue.  P2P can help you maintain your own dedicated nodes with low latency, with servers in the US, EU and Asia Pacific. You get the benefits of a dedicated machine without the headache of having to manage it.</p><h3 id="the-main-use-cases-for-rpc-nodes">The main use cases for RPC Nodes</h3><p>There are several use cases for Remote Procedure Call (RPC) nodes in blockchain:<br></p><ul><li>Decentralized applications (dApps): dApps rely on the network to function, and they often use RPC nodes to communicate with the network and access the blockchain data they need.</li><li>Smart contract development: Developers use RPC nodes to test and deploy smart contracts on networks.</li><li>Wallet development: Wallet developers use RPC nodes to access blockchain data and perform transactions on behalf of users.</li><li>Token and cryptocurrency exchanges: Exchanges use RPC nodes to access blockchain data and perform transactions on behalf of users.</li><li>Blockchain analytics: Analysts and researchers use RPC nodes to access and analyse blockchain data.</li><li>Auditing: Auditing firms use RPC nodes to access blockchain data and perform audits on smart contracts, tokens and other assets.</li><li>Payment processing: Companies and organizations use RPC nodes to process payments and transactions on the Ethereum network.<br></li></ul><p>These are just a few examples of the many ways that RPC nodes can be used.</p><h3 id="what-is-an-rpc-endpoint">What is an RPC endpoint?</h3><p>Typically, an RPC endpoint is a point on the network where a program sends RPC requests to access server data. With an RPC endpoint, you can easily perform operations that use real-time blockchain data in your dApp.</p><p>The appropriate software needs to be installed on a node in order to respond to RPC requests. RPC endpoints run on nodes connected to the blockchain service through which your dApp receives information for its users. Therefore, all RPC endpoints run on RPC nodes, and all RPC nodes have RPC endpoints. </p><h3 id="full-node-and-archive-node">Full node and archive node</h3><p>Depending on your use case, the type of node you need will vary. RPC nodes can also be divided into two main types - full nodes and archive nodes. The difference is in the depth of history that the nodes keep.</p><p>A full node keeps the current state of the blockchain and contains all the data on the network except trace data for transactions beyond the most recent blocks. </p><p>An archive node is a type of node that stores the entire blockchain history. This allows the node to provide access to historical data and transactions, which can be useful for various purposes such as analyzing the blockchain's past performance or auditing the network's activity. These nodes typically require a large amount of storage and computational resources to run, as they must maintain a copy of the entire blockchain. They are also known as full archive nodes or simply archive nodes.</p><p>To sum up, an archive node is a full node that additionally maintains a database of historical blockchain states. Full nodes can calculate historical states, but archive nodes have the information readily available locally and have better performance for this type of request.</p><h3 id="the-standard-rpc-specification">The standard RPC specification</h3><p>Blockchains use the JSON-RPC standard for RPC. Data requests are received and processed quickly by this system. JSON-RPC is a stateless, lightweight protocol for remote procedure calls (RPCs). Several data structures are defined in this protocol, along with rules for their processing. It is transport agnostic in that the concepts can be used within the same process, over sockets, over HTTP, or in various message-passing environments.</p><p>P2P is happy to provide assistance in deploying or maintaining your Web3 infrastructure. We will help you find the best configuration for your RPC nodes and address any infrastructure needs you may have. You'll get the benefits of a dedicated node without the headache of managing your own machine. Ideal for Dex's Financial services and dApps.<br><br>Contact us at <a href="mailto:[email protected]" rel="noopener noreferrer">[email protected]</a><br></p>

P2P Validator

from p2p validator

Ethereum Ethereum (ETH) Staking guide

<!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h3 id="table-of-contents">Table of Contents</h3> <ul> <li><a href="#T1"><span style=" font-size:16px"> What is Ethereum (ETH) Staking? </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T2"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Why stake Ethereum (ETH) with P2P? </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T3"><span style=" font-size:16px"> What does the Ethereum (ETH) staking process look like?<br> </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T4"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Ethereum (ETH) staking guide </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T5"><span style=" font-size:16px"> P2P Ethereum (ETH) Staking FAQ </span></a></li> </ul> <h2 id="what-is-ethereum-eth-staking-a-namet1a">What is Ethereum (ETH) Staking? <a name="T1"></a></h2> <p>When staking Ethereum (ETH) we are supporting the network with the additional benefit of earning additional ETH! Ethereum uses “Proof-of-stake” (PoS) as a consensus mechanism, where validators are responsible for reaching a consensus on adding new transaction blocks to the blockchain.</p> <p>To stake Ethereum we need a minimum of 32 ETH. This is because each validator requires 32 ETH to set up and for this same reason staking can only be done in increments of 32 ETH. For example, someone holding 320 ETH will have to set up 10 different validators. Anyone can take part in this consensus mechanism, all we have to do is run a validator (or ask to run it staking-as-a-service provider like P2P.org) and deposit 32 ETH to a special smart contract to activate a validator. This act is called staking.</p> <h2 id="why-stake-ethereum-eth-with-p2p-a-namet2a">Why stake Ethereum (ETH) with P2P? <a name="T2"></a></h2> <p>P2P has been running Ethereum validators since the launch of the Beacon Chain, in December 2020 as part of Lido Validator set. We take care of all the server maintenance and set-up.</p> <p>P2P's Ethereum staking solution is completely non-custodial and each validator is personally set up so there is never any comingling of customer's funds throughout the process.</p> <p>Those that choose to stake with P2P can also benefit from our insurance coverage against slashing events.</p> <p>In short, the benefits are:</p> <ul> <li>High performance and uptime</li> <li>Slashing insurance</li> <li>Personal staking dashboard</li> <li>Secure non-custodial staking</li> <li>Experienced DevOps team</li> <li>Part of the LIDO validator core set since inception</li> <li>24/7 monitoring of machine and protocol metrics</li> </ul> <h2 id="what-does-the-ethereum-eth-staking-process-look-like-a-namet3a">What does the Ethereum (ETH) staking process look like? <a name="T3"></a></h2> <p>To set up a validator we first need the following information:</p> <ol> <li>Specify the amount of stake - 1 validator per 32 ETH;</li> <li>The withdrawal address.</li> </ol> <p>Please note that once set, the withdrawal address cannot be changed. A different address can also be specified to receive rewards.</p> <p>Following the reception of this information, the validators are set up and a link to the deposit page will be sent out. This process can take up to 24 hours.</p> <p>Once the staking deposit is sent, the validator will be created via our <a href="https://github.com/mixbytes/audits_public/tree/master/P2P.org">audited immutable smart contract</a>. After a period of 16 to 24 hours, the validators will become active and start earning rewards.</p> <p>Ethereum staking rewards are divided into 2 parts. Around 30% of the rewards can be withdrawn and are paid on a monthly basis while the rest is locked and can only be withdrawn after the Shanghai upgrade coming in 2023. Please note that this lock on rewards is not imposed by P2P but is a current feature of the Ethereum network.</p> <p>Once the validators are up and running P2P will set up and email each staker a personalized dashboard that can be used to track rewards and validator metrics.</p> <h2 id="ethereum-eth-staking-guide-a-namet4a">Ethereum (ETH) staking guide <a name="T4"></a></h2> <ol> <li>To start staking go to <a href="https://p2p.org/networks/ethereum-staking-service">p2p.org/networks/ethereum-staking-service</a> and click Stake now.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/01/Captura-de-ecr--2023-01-25-163236.png" alt="ETH staking"> </p> <ol start="2"> <li> <p>A new window will pop up and we can set how much ETH we want to stake and optionally a different withdrawal address. It's important to keep in mind that once the withdrawal address is set it can't be changed.</p> <p>Here we can also set up an alternative wallet to receive MEV rewards. MEV rewards constitute around 30% of the APR and are paid on a monthly basis.</p> </li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/01/Manual-stake---2-1.jpg"> </p> <ol start="3"> <li> <p>Once everything is set up, we can press continue and we will be taken to a confirmation screen. Here we have one last chance to change the withdrawal and the MEV reward address.</p> <p>After reading and accepting the Ethereum Staking Terms and the Privacy policy we can continue.</p> </li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/01/3.1.png" alt="ETH staking confirmation"> </p> <ol start="4"> <li>A confirmation screen will pop up requesting that we check our email inbox to verify our email address. The reason why an email address is required is so that P2P can send out the URL to the staking page once the validator is set up.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/01/4.png" alt="ETH staking confirmation"> </p> <ol start="5"> <li>Once the email address is verified the process of setting up a validator will begin. This process can take from 1 to 24 hours.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/01/5.png" alt="ETH staking cverify"> </p> <ol start="6"> <li> <p>After the validators are set we will receive a link to resume the staking process (this email should come from a @p2p.org domain). The next and final step is to deposit the ETH into the validators. To proceed click &quot;Send deposits&quot;.</p> <p>For clarification, the ETH is being deposited to the validators via a smart contract. This is the Ethereum equivalent of staking and is necessary to activate the validators.</p> </li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/01/Aptos-letter-1.jpg" alt="ETH staking cverify"> </p> <ol start="7"> <li> <p>Next, we need to connect our Ethereum wallet.</p> <p>This will be our personal staking page with a prepared staking transaction. What does it mean?</p> </li> </ol> <ul> <li> <p>P2P has set up the validators</p> </li> <li> <p>P2P has prepared a special deposit data file that contains information about the validators' addresses where the ETH will be deposited and the withdrawal address we have set up previously, to unstake in the future.</p> <p>All of this information is available in the Deposit data file.</p> </li> </ul> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/01/2.jpg" alt="ETH staking cverify"> </p> <ol start="8"> <li> <p>We can stake with a Metamask or a Ledger wallet. There is currently no direct support for Trezor devices. We can stake with a Trezor wallet by first connecting it to a Metamask wallet.</p> <p>Other wallets are also available but the process is more complicated. To use a different wallet please contact P2P via <a href="https://t.me/P2Pstaking">Telegram</a>.</p> </li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/01/3.jpg" alt="ETH staking cverify"> </p> <ol start="9"> <li> <p>After connecting the wallet we can set the gas price for our ETH transaction. When staking conventionally each validator would require an individual transaction but with a smart contract, we can stake up to 100 validators with a single transaction. This greatly reduces the cost of staking and the chance of human error.</p> <p>Before signing the transaction we should once again check:</p> </li> </ol> <ul> <li>That the withdrawal address is set up correctly;</li> <li>If the recipient address in the transaction matches P2P's deposit smart contract.</li> </ul> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/01/5-1.jpg" alt="ETH staking cverify"> </p> <ol start="10"> <li>After we set the fee we just need to sign the transaction and wait for it to be processed. Once the transaction is processed we are all done. It can take from 16 to 24 hours for the validators to become active. Once they are in the active set you will get access to a personal dashboard with information about your validator metrics.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/01/8.jpg" alt="ETH staking cverify"> </p> <p>Those that stake Ethereum with P2P are encouraged to join a personal Telegram chat with some members of our team.</p> <p>To note that while MEV rewards are paid on a monthly basis, 1 Validator only produces on average one block every 62 days. Those staking with only 1 validator should expect their first reward after 2 months. The more validators are staked, the sooner it will happen.</p> <h2 id="p2p-ethereum-eth-staking-faq-a-namet5a">P2P Ethereum (ETH) Staking FAQ <a name="T5"></a></h2> <h3 id="do-i-need-to-pass-kyc-to-stake-eth">Do I need to pass KYC to stake ETH?</h3> <p>No, when working with P2P, there is no need to go through KYC because staked assets never touch our account and are sent directly to the Ethereum network.</p> <h3 id="what-is-the-minimum-amount-of-ethereum-required-to-stake">What is the minimum amount of Ethereum required to stake?</h3> <p>No Ethereum is necessary to run a node. However, it is necessary to stake 32 ETH x [amount of validators] to activate the validators and start getting rewards.</p> <h3 id="what-is-a-withdrawal-address-and-who-owns-it">What is a withdrawal address, and who owns it?</h3> <p>The withdrawal address is the Ethereum address used to unstake and receive rewards. This address is specified once and it can't be changed after the staking deposit is sent, because the network cements the association of a particular validator and withdrawal address. Access to the private key for this withdrawal address is required to unstake (seed phrase). It is also important to note that P2P is not a custodian and has no exposure to the client’s withdrawal private key. P2P will never ask, under any circumstance, at any time for access to the withdrawal key.</p> <h3 id="what-is-a-validator-key-and-who-owns-it">What is a validator key, and who owns it?</h3> <p>A validator key is a private key for maintaining the validator’s work (setting up validators, updating software etc.). P2P owns the validator keys and guarantees the highest standards for protecting these keys from being compromised, breached, or otherwise misused. This is accomplished through Threshold signatures, which are the gold standard for internal/external security threats. This solution is used by leading custodians, crypto banks, and Multi-Party Computation solutions.</p> <h3 id="why-use-smart-contracts-to-stake-eth">Why use smart contracts to stake ETH?</h3> <p>By design, ETH staking requires one staking transaction per 32 ETH. By using smart contracts we significantly simplify staking, reduce the cost of staking and minimize the risk of any human error. Thanks to our <a href="https://github.com/mixbytes/audits_public/tree/master/P2P.org">audited</a> smart contracts it is possible to activate up to 100 validators with a single transaction.</p> <h3 id="can-i-stake-ethereum-with-a-hardware-wallet">Can I stake Ethereum with a hardware wallet?</h3> <p>Yes, it is possible to stake ETH with a Ledger (via native connection) or a Trezor wallet (via Metamask).</p> <h3 id="how-do-i-earn-rewards-from-staking-ethereum">How do I earn rewards from staking Ethereum?</h3> <p>Ethereum rewards are comprised of 2 parts associated with performing validation duties and block creation.</p> <ol> <li>Validation rewards are taken by performing the validator’s duties as an attestation for a block created by another validator, attestation for a block in sync committee and for creating a block. Validation rewards are accrued every 6.4 min and account for around 70% of the total rewards. Currently, these rewards aren’t withdrawable until the Shanghai upgrade. Following Shanghai, it will be possible to:</li> </ol> <ul> <li>Fully withdraw all the staked ETH + rewards and deactivate the validator;</li> <li>Partially withdraw all the Ethereum over 32 to the withdrawal address periodically.</li> </ul> <ol start="2"> <li>Block rewards (priority transaction fees + an additional fee from MEV) are accrued with block creation as a payment from transactions to the validator for including them in the block. It appears once every 62 days on average and accounts for around 30% of the total reward. MEV-boost isn’t a separate type of reward but is a technique used to build a block that will yield the maximum fee. Transaction fees accumulate on a p2p smart contract which is then automatically delivered to the client on a monthly basis after the P2P service fee has been deducted.</li> </ol> <h3 id="can-i-still-use-my-staked-ethereum-while-it-is-staked">Can I still use my staked Ethereum while it is staked?</h3> <p>No, the staked ETH is locked in the Ethereum smart contract and cannot be used.</p> <h3 id="how-does-p2p-take-its-service-fee">How does P2P take its service fee?</h3> <p>P2P takes its service fee from the execution layer rewards. By default, a special immutable smart contract is used to automatically split rewards between the user and P2P by the previously agreed rules. Other invoicing strategies can be employed by prior agreement.</p> <h3 id="how-do-i-unstake-my-ethereum">How do I unstake my Ethereum?</h3> <p>Unstaking will be available after the Shanghai upgrade, which is planned for March 2023. The ustaking time is projected to be 2-3 days depending on the number of validators that want to exit. This process consists of four steps:</p> <ol> <li>There will be an unstaking page, where it is possible to authorize the unstaking process with the withdrawal address via the click of a button.</li> <li>P2P sends the validator a voluntary exit message to the Ethereum network, and your validators move into the exit queue. The validator then ceases participating in block attestation and creation (and stops getting rewards). The exit can take from 16 to 24 hours, but right after Shanghai, this queue may be much longer.</li> <li>After exit, the validator waits 27 hours as the network wants to ensure that it hasn't been slashed.</li> <li>Finally, the validator is moved into the second and final queue. This time, the validator is totally deleted from the network and returns its ETH with consensus layer rewards. This process can take from 16 to 24 hours.</li> </ol> <h3 id="how-does-slashing-work-in-ethereum">How does slashing work in Ethereum?</h3> <p>Slashing punishes validators for actions that are very difficult to do accidentally, and it’s very likely a sign of malicious intent. It’s a really rare event: there's only been 5 slashed validators within the whole network over the last month (or 0.001%). <a href="https://beaconcha.in/validators/slashings">beaconcha.in/validators/slashings</a></p> <p>What is “slashable” behaviour? In a nutshell, it’s a violation of consensus rules in the network. As of right now, it needs to meet three conditions: proposal of two conflicting blocks at the same time, double vote attestation and surround attestation. This can happen due to either an intentional malicious action or misconfiguration of the validator (the most often being, running two of the same validators in the network).</p> <p>Slashing results in burning 1,0 ETH at once, and removing the validator from the network forever, which takes 36 days. During this time, the validator continues to work but can no longer participate in validation and block creation, getting a penalty of around 0.1 ETH in total.</p> <p>For the most part that's the sum of the penalty incurred, but there is also an additional midpoint (Day 18) penalty that scales with the number of slashed validators. This is called &quot;correlation penalty” and it's currently only theoretical and has never been encountered on the Ethereum mainnet. This mechanism is there to protect the network from large attacks. The math for calculation penalty is pretty complicated, but the summary is if there are only 1, 100, or even 1000 slashed validators within 36 days the penalty will equal zero ETH. However, if the number of slashed validators increases to roughly 1.1% of all validators (currently 5.1k), this penalty becomes 1 ETH and an additional 1 ETH for every additional 1.1% validator slashed. So if 1/3 of the network is slashed, the penalty will nullify the whole stake (32 ETH). This mechanism is in place to prevent an attack on the network and it should never be triggered by accident.</p> <h3 id="how-can-slashing-be-prevented">How can slashing be prevented?</h3> <p>There are special mechanisms in place to prevent validators from meeting the slashing conditions called <a href="https://medium.com/prysmatic-labs/eth2-slashing-prevention-tips-f6faa5025f50">slashing protection</a>. These mechanisms usually consist of a database with a signing history which the validator uses to check if the block can be signed (coupled with the default levels of monitoring and alerting protection). Additional protection levels will depend on the validator’s setup. P2P uses double-checking with a separate database at the key-manager stage and secures validators' key’s by Threshold, which means that no single person, even a P2P engineer, can run a second validator and a quorum is required for that. The final level of protection we have in place is an institutional grade slashing insurance.</p> <h3 id="how-can-staking-activity-be-tracked">How can staking activity be tracked?</h3> <p>Anyone who stakes with P2P gets access to a personal staking dashboard that can be used to track rewards and the validators' performance (APR, staking balance, % of blocks created with MEV, attestation rate, missed block, market comparisons, etc.)</p> <h3 id="in-what-geographic-location-is-p2ps-validator-infrastructure-running">In what geographic location is P2P's validator infrastructure running?</h3> <p>P2P direct staking infrastructure is located in Europe and distributed among 5 separate physical locations for protection from downtime.</p> <h3 id="how-does-p2p-protect-its-validators-from-widespread-outages">How does P2P protect its validators from widespread outages?</h3> <p>P2P validators have no single point of failure and are downtime resistant with back-ups of all critical infrastructure parts between 5 different physical locations, including:</p> <ol> <li> <p>Signing infrastructure - 3 location-independent key managers with 2-of-3 threshold quorum required for consensus;</p> </li> <li> <p>Validators Nodes - we have a reserve in a secure region ready to be activated within a maximum of 1 minute in case of an outage;</p> </li> <li> <p>Consensus layer nodes - our setup has top-3 consensus layer clients (Lighthouse, Prysm, Teku) simultaneously for diversity and preventing outrages related to soft bugs in one client. It also increases availability for validators.</p> </li> </ol> <!--kg-card-end: markdown-->

P2P Validator

from p2p validator

Chainlink Chainlink Insights: an analysis of Oracle's revenue and performance

<h3 id="intro">Intro</h3><p>Everyone is always looking for ways to improve their finances and we often hear that staking in crypto can't be profitable and stable during the bear market. At P2P we think that it depends on how effectively your staking provider uses the infrastructure.</p><p>Today we want to share the story of how we became a successful Node operator (NOP) on Chainlink by continuously improving our performance metrics. We will also talk about Chainlink’s oracle network, its current state and how NOPs can get a stable revenue even during a bear market.</p><h3 id="what-is-chainlink-oracle-network">What is Chainlink oracle network?</h3><p>Chainlink is the market-leading decentralised oracle network providing real-world data to smart contracts on any blockchain. Currently, Chainlink supplies data for DeFi consumers across 14 networks:</p><ol><li>Ethereum: Mainnet, Goerli, Kovan, Rinkeby, Ropsten</li><li>Avalanche</li><li>Binance SM</li><li>Optimism</li><li>Arbitrum</li><li>Fantom</li><li>Harmony</li><li>Moonriver</li><li>Moonbeam</li><li>Metis</li><li>Heco</li><li>Polygon</li><li>xDai</li><li>Solana</li></ol><p>Ethereum registered the highest number of working oracles during 2022.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/ko4Q_PCIn7OB4WTIL_bSQUuTWml5S6uWUMEHHijYiDy1_dbXi3DoPdJVMkniYsriQkhfi1q0yMXC8thIjeyzN65kJNdpAiYg6pYSD-J3gWQ4jXaXwbsQQkGmRCBK9--8P5bep1glXSRkXTebpjAvkOi8GbUphwfEi5NbSyYhMzTXyE03q4G4tfHlU5EqNA" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="602" height="215"></figure><p>Within each network, oracles can provide different types of data:</p><ul><li>price rates between two tokens, NFTs, etc. (data about the price relation between 2 tokens is called data feeds);</li><li>automation services;</li><li>direct requests from consumers (when somebody directly requests data from Chainlink protocol);</li><li>A verifiable source of randomness for smart contract developers (VFR).</li></ul><p>P2P currently provides more than 2000 unique data feeds on different chains. While most of these data feeds are shared across multiple chains, some of them are unique to a specific chain, for example, the METIS-USD data feed is present only in the Metis network. Here’s the distribution of data feeds per network:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/PoRy4aBEV2Y-nutW0NLkgLF6UdD4HxMGBCuoutrrYMIdt9D4NwKX45YCzCbcf1M7jceBnnyZOsYGDmftMiFcas8jNjbd6wJVzrXeHb33RqCKXnHbC0flxRZca43_La6oR07sUNTkfROSm0yuEFQ7GRzZnZilZQeJRtpLxBO-kmALFji7vdI2qanxcyQVjw" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="602" height="216"></figure><p>These data feeds are distributed between node operators in every blockchain. This is the first side of Chainlink’s decentralisation.</p><p>A few technical details:</p><p><em>Oracles generate reports for data feeds continuously by sending requests to data providers (APIs) and aggregating them (median). Every time consumers need data, Chainlink asks one of the oracles, that is assigned to that data feed, to write that data to the blockchain. The session data recording is called the Round and the chosen oracle is called the Leader of the Round. The Leader gets data from other oracles (who are also assigned to this data feed), calculates the median value and writes it to the blockchain. If for any reason the Leader couldn’t do it - the next oracle becomes the Leader and has to do it.</em></p><p><br>It is not enough to just attract a large number of oracles, it is also important to ensure that the oracle’s data is decentralised. This is achieved by using different data sources for different oracles.</p><p>For example, the price feed for ETH-USD in Fantom is distributed between oracles and data sources (APIs) as follows:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/n5ZNZNryhyK1tldaIwlR_iMB7yL8nm-g7hifNVL9uHp2r1DYPanLa2RrQnP4ESaFGmoelpxr_7KAOEjq8qsh5AgpD7w5mo70xFRBEY_LYP712JBbyXetp02hrTDVzfP9gtLdCzKPL1_Y6qC8KocEspigEkxMwlZSGfGbi4oGnuwMmkSuLWKmvZClfHfZag" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="581" height="503"></figure><p><em>Note: A 1 means that an oracle gets the data from the API, 0 means that the oracle doesn’t get it from that source</em></p><p>The degree of decentralisation can vary as it depends on the number of data sources that provide the price data and the number of oracles. We only need the fact that different oracles send requests to different API services to proceed with the data when Chainlink needs it for understanding Chainlink’s decentralisation.</p><h3 id="p2p-chainlink">P2P &amp; Chainlink</h3><p>P2P joined the Chainlink oracles network in 2018. We first started as a NOP in Ethereum on several data feeds and we haven't stopped growing since that time. Today we are present in 6 networks and we provide data for more than 150 feeds.</p><p>This level of growth was a serious challenge for us as a company. Looking back it seems that it would be impossible to become a successful Node operator without a data-driven approach. Luckily, in 2020 we had already understood that we needed to collect and analyse data about NOPs’ performance in Chainlink. In this article we will walk you through our path and go through it from the beginning.</p><p>We provide 4 steps for a successful data-driven approach to node management:</p><ol><li>Define key metrics. You can’t control anything without measuring it, but first, you need to understand what you want to measure.</li><li>Extract all the necessary data. It seems obvious but we had to work hard to collect all the data from different networks, make indexers and transform it so that they are usable for analytical purposes.</li><li>Determine who is a good node operator. When you’ve collected all the metrics you should understand what you can do with them: what is under your control and what is not. You need to also keep in mind Chainlink's main mission - to provide accurate off-chain data to the blockchains.</li><li>Decision making. Develop analytic tools to transform the data into knowledge that can be used in decision-making.<br></li></ol><p>Let's start with the first step.</p><h3 id="key-metrics">Key metrics</h3><p>The main purpose of the Chainlink protocol is to provide data for users. As we have previously mentioned, “Round” is the act of writing data to the blockchain by an Oracle.</p><p>Here are the number of rounds for the Ethereum mainnet in 2022.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/xapxQXV-nkH28gGuqnyC0DxlXRTfWntVZM5B92D8Jm7BX24Z9Cgsb1Kfw8uSVc5I_PBZjhN2dD9TUNSOWWmhYeWFi-A2_M4n5Xb_5ienucAcJVKrtfkk_HfxnDZsMc2cvpJCNDTL-WGU05i7HB43RIA3lQRK0kP3txlaF5MqLbh4K-j2DWs9lZbqQ1PlAQ" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="602" height="193"></figure><p>This is how we compare the consumption of Chainlink’s data by different chains (for example Avalanche, Fantom, Harmony, Moonriver and Ethereum). You can notice there is a peak in the number of rounds in May (Terra collapse), June (Celsius) and November (FTT/FTX collapse). This is true for every chain:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/b9ZreTaBRX5kUef45SkDBOFsJrgXmwmKrFcwf_5CBdvwPxtMgHP2JieX4xHVAE3tQhSidDFG_FAMFptn2bRnkYHHCOs5VCGfQ6mdy3DRoKSksgKgYtRSW1IRFkZLr-tao1SwaHza-r--sieVqQlFjWZ1LaLPahSdolAlAqulYP7Hvj6fVrGqsTCWVsod7g" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="602" height="180"></figure><p>We can track the number of rounds to measure the consumption of data supported by Chainlink for any chain/feed/oracle. For example here is the number of rounds for ETH-USD (dark blue), FTT-USD (green) and ATOM-USD (bright blue) on Ethereum’s mainnet:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/5vGOUEiQeURrCyua2Imyq5boZ6GjD4MAVmH_4eh_dDld3pY3IZOH2Y8jDWHKbMV8RX7gNCexad_poWtHYVGGTDwCW7VO-eSPJVBI142XoaF_MNzsrcxaxVo3ZL8iG2h_jVSfpq8RAvtOcG5QUkgPoLzb1dLm5GQO3KL8C_OFXHO5UkTEPr9LGJOPyaOLFQ" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="602" height="175"></figure><ul><li>There are a lot of spikes for the ETH-USD data feed. During our monitoring of Chainlink's activity, we see that every significant crypto event increases the demand for ETH data feeds. It is probably connected with the need to swap every token to Ethereum either because it seems like one of the most securable assets or because it has the best liquidity;</li><li>Cosmos ATOM saw a growing demand for price data in the middle of May (we link this with the Terra collapse) and not a so significant peak in November;</li><li>With FTT we see the opposite. The number of rounds was lower during May ‘22 and much bigger in November ‘22 during the FTX scandal.</li></ul><p>It is not enough to just provide data, our purpose in Chainlink as a NOP is to provide accurate data. For that, we need an estimation of the quality of the data that is calculated based on the oracles’ answers every round. We call this “Deviation”. It is calculated by comparing a particular oracle’s answer for that Round to the Round’s final value (the median of each oracle's answer). This way, we can track the variance of each oracle every Round. This can also be used to calculate the average value of each oracle’s deviation. Here is how we can compare the data quality for different chains:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/GIGrmSCocpuw1HYcBG5nb325HI2kPQO1-BkkeSN2gjrleMZckC3fBt69FhJuy6HbxZS22QVeJ9DD-laJ35WcSKhDznJJIctF4_8ndu9QIaUBvkhHpWoyWaXiSBDknbLtym6aU7Zeb2F9tCBkA8dBcCRTYmjMCN1ani9Tt1Xx9FO31mTpgzZaPyLiXXVhNw" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="602" height="172"></figure><p>It is important to mention that the most popular deviation threshold for data feed defined by Chainlink is 0.5%. There are a lot of feeds with even a 5% deviation threshold.</p><p>It is also interesting to compare the performance of different NOPs by their ability to write Chainlink data on-chain. We use the Transaction success rate (TSR) for this. This is the ratio of the number of successful transactions to the number of unsuccessful transactions.</p><p><strong>Data extraction</strong></p><p>This is not the main subject of the current article. We plan to talk about this a bit more in a future post. Today we will only mention the main architecture of the ETL (Extract, transform, load steps of data uploading pipeline) process:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/k8IpSUldKoj2x3RDdjVRlY01TlVaKtvARTFciBmqkGLOwOMNo-CSVCyvdQimOTzaB0mhL_cFC7J_RQlpfVH-uWARBeUkrmIjg0xL9LxHj2_eHSesRQ_WnxwSgMYSBIwp_L9P6S0vL3UYZV1sYMyGHdjh0JMuwTJrnzmTMXG2jKX1ejnl8TLdegIMCMhVOw" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="602" height="189"></figure><p>The first 3 sources are:</p><ol><li>On-chain data</li><li>Chainlink <a href="https://github.com/smartcontractkit/reference-data-directory">repo</a></li><li>TheGraph: our subgraphs are available here:</li></ol><ul><li><a href="https://thegraph.com/explorer/subgraphs/53PbnKoeHChwYvh7rKJES7sdRbwtutszWyTbrrSyib7Y?view=Overview">Chainlink on Ethereum</a></li><li><a href="https://thegraph.com/hosted-service/subgraph/vkuzenkov/chainlink-fantom-mainnet">Chainlink on Fantom</a></li></ul><p>Stay tuned if you want to know more about data and indexation in the future.</p><h3 id="who-is-a-good-node-operator">Who is a good node operator?</h3><p>Every NOP is a company first. The main target of every business is to be profitable. Let’s look deeper into Node operator economics.</p><p>Oracles get rewarded in LINK for every report to the blockchain, regardless of who was the Leader of the round. The Leader gets additional rewards for writing data to the blockchain.</p><p>The main expenses of an Oracle are gas costs, infrastructure costs and human resources. Oracles should pay the gas cost to write data to the blockchain when it was chosen as Leader of the Round.</p><p>We can track rewards and gas costs to estimate the revenue of the oracle's performance. Here is Chainlink on Ethereum financial metrics:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/G-e8bKxh3uuB8r4xRLS8LBfnRh7EVqJFcSvpnsDm2nuoKSbnxBhrbhZyCZ5tvRYHQ26aoNgGkuHiNNgM-ky_mOqTIGTIiNknQfbEEbv5aOAxgw8WhRm5e3kKi2TcEBXrDm4f4jVK7MZRlhw53KwkDpMbV4rtLpahFZ-bURQ1CNs3zSKMswSftu4JBm9lig" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="602" height="265"></figure><p>So the total net revenue for all of the oracles in Ethereum is 37.3 mil $ during this year.</p><p>Now we know the Chainlink mechanics. We also know that a Bear market in Crypto leads to smaller amounts of revenue for every project. But 2022 has also brought us a lot of activity from scandals involving multiple projects: Terra, Celsius, FTT and so on. What if we want to understand how stable an oracle’s revenue can be during an unusual event ? We will definitely want to know what the gas spending value was and how many rewards the oracles got. It will also be great to see deviations to understand the consensus about price data between oracles.</p><p>Let’s see what was happening with an oracle's net revenue during 2022 across 6 networks: Ethereum, Solana, Fantom, Moonriver, Harmony and Avalanche:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/lDoax59JiicEyvaBGsGERT7XT_v8qT8u1R5K7uHgIdIc7hdd6Y6ijI0j0Efe1om5UTsPyy0qYtVuO021MNS5OVtcjbUl7f4hl96QJcVTMaFnx7u05U2fORFe02Ds3H3PX8iXQ0fRHEm_LmGW0dCDf8Df8lAhIF2icWaQ-khXzAVGWc-7nxqK55XzgCUIgQ" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="602" height="176"></figure><p>Here's what was happening with revenue during April-may ‘22 to understand how the Terra event influenced Chainlink NOPs:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-gallery-card kg-width-wide"><div class="kg-gallery-container"><div class="kg-gallery-row"><div class="kg-gallery-image"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/12/1.png" width="516" height="518" loading="lazy" alt></div><div class="kg-gallery-image"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/12/2.png" width="686" height="598" loading="lazy" alt srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2022/12/2.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/12/2.png 686w"></div></div></div></figure><p><br>We can see that everything went up: Costs, Rewards and Net Revenue. So during this commotion around Terra, we see a peak in the number of rounds as we mentioned earlier. It led to an increase in network utilisation and higher gas costs. But it also brought more rewards to node operators and higher Net Revenue as a result.</p><p>A slightly different situation was the FTT/FTX collapse. We’ve already seen that there were way more rounds for FTT data feeds. If we dig deeper we can also see that it happened to every asset associated with FTX such as Solana. But what about net revenue?</p><figure class="kg-card kg-gallery-card kg-width-wide"><div class="kg-gallery-container"><div class="kg-gallery-row"><div class="kg-gallery-image"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/12/3.png" width="694" height="654" loading="lazy" alt srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2022/12/3.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/12/3.png 694w"></div><div class="kg-gallery-image"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/12/4.png" width="864" height="640" loading="lazy" alt srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2022/12/4.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/12/4.png 864w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></div><div class="kg-gallery-image"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/12/5.png" width="684" height="650" loading="lazy" alt srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2022/12/5.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/12/5.png 684w"></div></div></div></figure><p><br>It was the same during September and October, with no significant differences. But what about P2P:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-gallery-card kg-width-wide"><div class="kg-gallery-container"><div class="kg-gallery-row"><div class="kg-gallery-image"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/12/6.png" width="584" height="612" loading="lazy" alt></div><div class="kg-gallery-image"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/12/7.png" width="614" height="626" loading="lazy" alt srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2022/12/7.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/12/7.png 614w"></div><div class="kg-gallery-image"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/12/8.png" width="612" height="628" loading="lazy" alt srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2022/12/8.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/12/8.png 612w"></div></div></div></figure><p>Our revenue hasn't changed much during the last 3 months.</p><p>Besides revenue, every NOP should care about its reputation in the Chainlink network. As we previously mentioned, we track reputation by 2 key metrics:</p><ol><li>Deviation</li><li>TSR</li></ol><p>Here’s the Deviation stat for 5 networks:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/MFvB1wIPX31q-SczY1-ZRDov9wNrfniYHIBiSpqWMnJvsQJ8F5Hb4YMSHFxdNj9NmC4AAx1d4nR1UCfsvkewZYKSGSE6ICtKeCZZ4Jmms2D6mOvuL9JlZi1vqkA6qH7NqG-113OrPYXxoFiItbyeKfMAlGuoWWZMJ8ydT0AJF6pOK7xiBXI2-QvCaCVvXw" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="602" height="173"></figure><p>The two red vertical lines mark the Terra and FTT/FTX events.</p><p>It is expected that during a big market event, the consistency of oracles decreases. We can see the huge deviation in Avalanche and Moonriver during the Terra collapse.</p><p>During the FTX event we can observe a deviation, although much smaller when compared to the earlier one:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/PF1e9w5FoYu1eUCBICXhEepDSJd01b9q-v_V9O7RGT51L1yI5yOCFe3awTjaBpiztMrBZFbLQMT7tyuVbq2lMbH-YClh4fVu42oYM_j_dgPuhYIbcSNM10EwYdPDhVs9FwMliPoEQE9XF4Zmc7IO-XJim4rfQKTkz2ThbBA30IcRAFM_m3PTeMdBTleMlQ" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="203" height="276"></figure><p>We can also compare oracles based on TSR to estimate how successful oracles are in writing data to the blockchain. For example, here is the TSR for Ethereum’s mainnet:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/0AwgVfBVVPTzGOmoXWFbqxTtTYMHRlbKgvz_JkoJ83drgBcsidggKMCu6M2F9aJOZol0k7wBM-F_31iPjnRmHVQn1tip5a_Zu8l1652XFfwoAqhV8PvvF1UvcZACIU0OkxaKRkPoI-RHPRtBaarQEa3ruE_ODKGnz3kOpU3ODRIbmsX7nQq8muTMxBczcA" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="602" height="175"></figure><p>We can observe that during November and for most of 2022, P2P had a TSR ranging between 90-100% in every network except Fantom and Solana (and Moonriver in April). This is because those chains use a different transaction execution mechanism compared to most EVM chains. You can make sure that this is quite a good metric value by comparing us to others.</p><p>Here is the distribution of different NOPs TSR for the Fantom network:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/6nvlDCRGlu0CQezWXbVY_Hz9RSnlkKGTHUUVCDiIckYpfRtxrmr0Y0Rz7WoD5EyHXnHUTAVxctbssydK82O-htUsQ980nGcglNVN2Fu93nEDdrv8ZZbIKMkvExrlfLyd5QnfWK0OsimT9zAiBd_McY2VH7fY0GoQ2BhRyWy67_eCmjsnVQDT43ylX9S6Wg" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="602" height="329"></figure><p><br>We can observe that even at its lowest point P2P was among the top NOPs.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/rq8zjGR9Gg1DnY7SI840HpM4Nl03jg54-7tr3z6YhJOOh2xXUl1A-qKX7l59hco13rNG8hE4jtCg1BA5-FBQIJC0L6JPbQaS26b5cwQy-55b-UdaOJFufVOkiBP8mNp0qC576tZW2vCPee7ShXW9yeK01QIL-R5qcGcDqFq4k6G6WUH55OLa952T3m4gTA" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="602" height="333"></figure><p>The median TSR or all Nops on Solana was 6.07% and the median TSR for P2P was 6% for the same period.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/2T9H6f4Ovl5_QpOcvm1G7wVaFomZuLOKC3NdWW6T6sUMW0nn8Rz0db0Y7NmXBvsjj-Ouuf3bLyYESj-JGhy8IeZ3U4418pX_CQHUWbm03_qDMnJGVPYcqD7TvRtDzjs0ZOT6vfj0dhh-J2Uej-nqhJpKtaA0TSfIV9wFdlCmxVegFjHz23as4BzCW36FDw" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="602" height="332"></figure><h3 id="decision-making">Decision making</h3><p>In this section, we will discuss how we solve business problems by using a data-driven approach.</p><p>On August 2021 Ethereum released EIP-1559. A significant aspect of this proposal was how it overhauled the transaction fee system. For P2P it meant that we could now use EIP-1559 to prioritize transactions. We weren’t sure how this would affect the transaction success rate, in other words, did miners have a preference for one type of transaction?</p><p>We’ve decided to run an A/B test. The design was to switch the priority fee algorithm from Standard to 1559 every 15 minutes and set the configuration of both algorithms. As a result, we’ve got the same transaction success rate and significantly different cap fees as can be seen in the picture below:<br></p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/cZyvehzptSVbQyPoD8YDWRJWCzQIE5XZ8cN-X6Sm2vBhqtmTKO9AQg5vyqkRp_MYm1e5Ldop_oqZRRdjRED7zeWDU-WrzBAJIR3kLAy6Ueo64cnnN6hYlS8nX7vnal2Yj0GG8DjXgzJoHTCSp5uftQWhy1tZsHOaZ_krVTE54Fqt2uluZzOXDU9Q0lW3GA" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="602" height="371"></figure><p><br>This is how data analysis and data-driven approaches are applied in decision-making.</p><h3 id="staking">Staking</h3><p>Chainlink Staking v.0.1 launched on December 6, 2022. During this first version there are two ways to stake Chainlink:</p><ol><li>Community staking: you need to satisfy three <a href="https://blog.chain.link/chainlink-staking-early-access-eligibility-app/">criteria</a> and the APR is around <a href="https://blog.chain.link/chainlink-staking-launch-details/">4.75%</a><br></li><li>Staking through a NOP: when a NOP stakes from 1000 to 50k LINKs as a self-stake. APR is 7%.</li></ol><p>If you want to see the details you can read <a href="https://p2p.org/economy/chainlink-staking">this post</a> in our blog or on Chainlink's official <a href="https://blog.chain.link/how-to-stake-chainlink-link/">website</a>. But as you may see the community staking pool is already full and won’t be expended till v.1.0 (9-12 months):</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/EhIZFEBJ2vh9a7_V1SzfCJZF2-cWSKe12djGu_6WTb1vlaSwJ9Fi5GezBhCJnqoDf_TdoIPi1HVv5CzdIfuLmcg2a0qbI4Qv6tyuaWgdFZe2c_pYU1hyKUfK2X-bS1hnDsMjZPvbWQdpXaY3TO2vQMPNMfoDG9DBj3bo59575bJQvY9DaRUdeLDfLJDKwg" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="386" height="373"></figure><p><br>That is why we are glad to provide our clients with a custodial solution to get a higher APR through P2P with a 10% fee. Through P2P you need a minimum of 10k LINK and can stake up to 50k LINK.</p><hr><h3 id="about-p2p">About P2P</h3><p>P2P Validator is a world-leading staking provider with the best industry security practices and proven expertise. We provide comprehensive due diligence on digital assets and offer only top-notch staking opportunities. At the time of the latest update, more than 1,5 billion USD is staked with P2P Validator by over 25,000 delegators across 25+ networks.</p><p><br></p><p><br></p><p><br></p><p><br></p><p><br></p><p><br></p><p><br></p>

P2P Validator

from p2p validator

TheGraph The Graph: How to become a Curator

<h3 id="the-graph-overview">The Graph overview</h3><p>The Graph is a decentralised protocol for querying and indexing data from blockchains. It is the backbone of major crypto projects like Uniswap, Lido, Livepeer and Decentraland. Basically, any dApp in order to be truly decentralised has to store its data on a distributed database. And The Graph is where dApps can store and collect information in a familiar Web 2.0 fashion but with Web3 security and reliability.</p><p>You can capitalise on major Web3 projects’ successes and failures and earn fees on The Graph platform. The Graph supplies the databases and computing powers to support these projects and this work is done by the <strong>indexers<em>.</em></strong> This work is backed by <strong><em>delegators</em></strong> that stake GRT by delegating it to them. Anyone can become a delegator and get between 9% and 15% APY on their GRT tokens.</p><p>Those looking for a <strong>higher yield and comfortable with higher risks</strong> can consider becoming a <strong>curator</strong>. </p><h3 id="how-to-become-a-curator-and-earn-up-to-30-apr-on-the-graph">How to become a curator and earn up to 30% APR on The Graph</h3><p>A Curators’ job is to identify the most prosperous Web3 projects that use The Graph as their database and <strong>buy their shares</strong>. When a curator holds these shares they get a part of the query fees served by indexers with some of them returning <strong>up to 30% APY</strong>. </p><p>With the new dashboard made by P2P for curators, it has become easier than ever to make data-driven decisions.</p><p><a href="https://reports.p2p.org/superset/dashboard/graph_curation">https://reports.p2p.org/superset/dashboard/graph_curation</a></p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/LWEFh4gxRK4CE8sSXkllZBvzy36YjMQi451EtVbXDWa3eHQR8s8UczlTY6Tbmq5_fJ1oJae4keRPkUWjlb8P_JJfEnjdo6N19XL0KdeABpsAIj1u5rJk4KV8_zE1_rZRcvwvFdenPU9_bAQNkbGsHGrjvABnpwgb8rjVSo5goYyZc4ic6ZUaTBXnc2BwfA" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="602" height="197"></figure><p>The first tab (subgraphs) is designed to give you data on where the upcoming query fees are going to be higher. </p><p>The creators’ share column would help you identify how many other curators may leave and thus lower your share price, as it is unlikely (but still possible!) for subgraph creators to abandon their own subgraph.</p><p><strong>Query fees (QF)</strong> probability is calculated based on the past 30 days. If there were no queries in the last month, the probability of new queries is close to 0. The percentage takes into account all closed allocations, their size, and duration and estimates the probability of the next query.</p><p><strong>QF APR</strong> is estimated based on the annualised Price per Share changes <strong>in the last 30 days </strong>based on indexers' allocation collect events.</p><p><strong>QF APR If You Signal N GRT</strong> is calculated considering current signals &amp; query fees collected in the last 30 days.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/fPz7MeZb9VYyYw_iuPEagHOUkDL8YfaTa9lYmumMy2HQ0Uj9Tr87iApkHN2rS1z6WBC28LpmrQO9dvUGWpBNVZ-YO76Z4V3uKPA65sTplIWK_Of07bnIRIPEJv1QdEBWVNGGLj_JMNDdnxyR-k-5qblJEHdGDyMNhpvj4bBJyGbh_5Iafk99X34fyjPU9g" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy"></figure><h3 id="how-are-query-fees-accrued">How are query fees accrued</h3><p>Everything starts with indexers allocating their GRT to subgraphs. They would allocate their tokens proportionally to the number of signals on the subgraphs. </p><p>In the table below Proportion = Signals / Allocated GRT</p><!--kg-card-begin: html--><p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/12/image.png"> </p><!--kg-card-end: html--><p>If for example, curators added signals to the UMA subgraph, this would in theory lead to more indexers allocating GRT there. An allocation generates rewards for a period of 28 epochs only (approx. 28 days). After that, the allocation stops generating rewards and indexers have an incentive to close them. They may also close their allocation earlier if the signals on the subgraphs change. You can observe indexers' behaviour towards particular subgraphs in the Selected Subgraphs’ Current Indexers’ Allocations table.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/A2KQHjzfMubFzSf3ZibEnHuYz0GCsRrsTNU5ygynfA_13tZzoOMiWI9ejdvDeqpfG7rO3u4rXDkeWQdWRBkPcDFdlb16_Oo_Hi4dQskoZRBl_mOJZXj7Qxakft6kF4KjlJ2X26jzZuBSWsllv9WqHq0s3r0VNB8MR9SpZjMKpV2bmuqL1lwDzBOnGLzV9A" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="602" height="99"></figure><p>Here's how the allocation lifecycle plays out:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/12/image-1.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="647" height="133" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2022/12/image-1.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/12/image-1.png 647w"></figure><p>Because Indexers have to pay gas for every action sometimes they choose not to collect query fees if the reward doesn't outweigh the cost. They can store those query fees and accumulate them until it is economically viable to claim them. To help you predict whether an indexer will claim query fees, we provide you with the stats for previous allocations. Curators only get their share of query fees after the indexers claim them.</p><h3 id="differences-between-the-share-price-and-the-token-price">Differences between the share price and the token price</h3><p>Query fees are not the primary source of income for curators. Most of the tokens earned come from the <strong><em>shares' price changes</em></strong>.</p><p>The share price is not tied to the project’s token price. For example, changes in the Uniswap token price, UNI, do not correlate with changes in price for its subgraph shares. Some of the projects with a subgraph do not have a token at all, for example, Connext has not released its token yet. You also need to pay attention to the subgraph publisher. For example, Messari has published subgraphs for Uniswap, Lido and other projects, but those subgraphs are not used by Uniswap or Lido, but by Messari.</p><p>With the help of our new tools, you can take a look at how other curators earn GRT on the share price changes. You can try to figure out the tactics that others use to become more profitable by taking a look at their portfolio and the actions they took.</p><h3 id="shares-price-and-bonding-curve">Shares price and bonding curve</h3><p>When signalling onto the subgraph a curator buys shares. The price of a share is pre-determined by the bonding curve and each subsequent share is more expensive. The same logic applies in the opposite direction. If someone sells a share, the share price of each curator on that subgraph drops as the price goes down the bonding curve. This process is well documented in <a href="https://thegraph.com/docs/en/network/curating/">The Graph's official documentation</a>. The primary way to earn rewards in curation is by being among the first to notice the true potential of a subgraph.</p><p>There are a few tactics that can be applied to be successful in this way of earning rewards. One that is very frowned upon by the community is the use of front-running bots that signal on a subgraph as soon as it appears in the network. There are different proposals on how to decrease their impact on the industry. These bots are not as aggressive as in other parts of the crypto ecosystem, so they still leave an opportunity for common investors to earn rewards in the curation market.</p><p>Projects with big names, such as Lido, Messari, and Curve get their signals very quickly as it is assumed that they will generate both hype and query fees that would generate rewards. But keep in mind that anyone can create a subgraph with any name, so it is better to make sure that the subgraph you plan to signal on is the official one. In all the cases mentioned above, a good place to discuss any Curation related questions is the official <a href="https://discord.com/invite/vtvv7FP">discord channel</a>.</p><p>We hope our new tool helps you in your curation process decision-making, or if it is the case, it helps you get started. We are always happy to hear your feedback on the work we are doing, so do not hesitate to reach out, and make suggestions on how we can make The Graph even better.</p><p>Check out the tool below.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-bookmark-card"><a class="kg-bookmark-container" href="https://reports.p2p.org/superset/dashboard/graph_curation/"><div class="kg-bookmark-content"><div class="kg-bookmark-title">Superset</div><div class="kg-bookmark-description"></div><div class="kg-bookmark-metadata"><img class="kg-bookmark-icon" src="https://reports.p2p.org/static/assets/images/favicon.png" alt=""></div></div><div class="kg-bookmark-thumbnail"><img src="https://reports.p2p.org/static/assets/images/loading.gif" alt=""></div></a></figure><hr><h2 id="about-p2p-validator"><strong>About P2P Validator</strong></h2><p><a href="https://p2p.org/?utm_source=blog&amp;utm_medium=economy&amp;utm_campaign=cosmos_fee">P2P Validator</a> is a world-leading non-custodial staking provider with the best industry practices and proven expertise. At the time of publishing, P2P Validator is trusted with over $1B in staked assets by over 30,000 delegators across 40+ networks.</p>

P2P Validator

from p2p validator

P2P Raises Polkadot fee while continuing to invest in secure and data-driven staking

<p>P2P Validator has been supporting the Polkadot network since the very first era. Our <strong>refined products allow nominators</strong> to easily manage investments and receive a detailed report on their staking income.</p><p><strong><strong>We </strong>are <strong>invest</strong>ed<strong> in the development of the Polkadot network</strong> </strong>and believe in its long-term prospects.<strong> H</strong>owever, the market conditions force us to review the fee to be able to keep contributing to the network and the community. </p><h3 id="what-have-we-done">What have we done?</h3><p>For over eight months under a reduced fee, we <strong>did not stop the development activity</strong> in the Polkadot network. Here is a list of the <strong>most significant achievements</strong> that we have released for the Polkadot community:</p><ol><li><a href="https://t.me/p2pvalidator_monitoring_bot">Monitoring-as-a-service telegram bot</a>. A bundle of Grafana dashboards and a telegram bot for Polkadot &amp; Kusama that allows the creation of a personalized dashboard to track consensus participation, block finalization efficiency and performance comparison with the network averages.</li><li>A new version of the <a href="https://github.com/p2p-org/polkadot-profit-transformer/tree/mbelt3/prod">Multi Blockchain ETL solution</a> with high-speed extraction and parachain support. We developed and supported the infrastructure for the MBELT, spending thousands of dollars every month. We believe that historical data is needed if we want to open up more widespread use cases: <br><strong>Parachains: </strong><br>- API<br>- Indexer <br><strong>DeFi:</strong><br>- Uncollateralized lending &amp; borrowing<br>- Credit scoring<br><strong>Community analytics: </strong><br>-Dashboards for performance tracking<br>-XCM messaging history<br>-Various kinds of analysis<br></li></ol><h3 id="plans-for-future-developments">Plans for future developments</h3><p>Product development inside the ecosystem is essential to support the Polkadot network and as a part of the community's long-term growth and network value.<br><br>Here is a brief list of planned releases:</p><ol><li>Slashing insurance coverage for institutional clients;</li><li>A new version of the Monitoring-as-a-service tool to track the finalization of blocks.<br></li></ol><h3 id="when-will-the-fee-be-increased">When will the fee be increased?</h3><p>We will increase the fee to 2.5% in Polkadot starting December 9, 2022. There is a lot of work ahead, and we believe that <strong>joint efforts will accelerate the evolution of the Polkadot ecosystem.</strong></p><p>We want to <strong>thank all our nominators</strong> for their continuous support and for staking with us! </p><hr><h2 id="about-p2p-validator"><strong>About P2P Validator</strong></h2><p><a href="https://p2p.org/?utm_source=blog&amp;utm_medium=economy&amp;utm_campaign=cosmos_fee">P2P Validator</a> is a world-leading non-custodial staking provider with the best industry practices and proven expertise. At the time of publishing, P2P Validator is trusted by over 30,000 delegators across 40+ networks.<br></p>

P2P Validator

from p2p validator

An inside look at P2P working culture

<p>Hi there!</p><p>My name is Anna, I have recently joined the P2P.org team as Senior Talent Acquisition. Maybe we've already met :)</p><p>Since blockchain and staking are new to me, I faced the challenge of having to dive deep into the cryptocurrency world.</p><p>Was I scared of doing it? Not at all :)</p><p>First of all, I have experience in changing industries as I'm sure most of you have also done without too much difficulty, but more importantly, I fell in love with the team.</p><p>Their professionalism, drive and support naturally fill you up and a few months later I can confidently say that the P2P.org team is a super-power. It’s not just the team that inspires you but also the tasks.</p><p>So let's talk about everything in order :)</p><p>I was first determined to learn more about the Product Manager role.</p><p>My main idea was to interview (You are surely shocked to hear about interviews from a recruiter) our internal employees, Product Managers mostly.</p><p>So I prepared a list of questions and booked some calls.</p><!--kg-card-begin: html--><p align="center"> <img src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/MenSarOh4iCrUEZD7v2uYYpMQ0RrioI_pCsYVli-gT6FfbOOJINK2prOEZ8iWeuJYQsAQoHs2dmfgv2OZgSnfmf0-TXkLbCx9a4W__myHyd627jfJ9S811jG3Ilrf4LqsUDh0bVRYeie080dAFFXmSzAsBhaAF3qNkIC7hFh_7o1-NZsyu2HsLbEKu16PA"> </p><!--kg-card-end: html--><p>The first question was devoted to the market perspective.</p><p>Our team believes in the power of decentralised finance, a system that is supposed to be fair to everyone. It all seems like a dream, doesn’t it?</p><p>And despite recent events, the crypto market has not stopped its development, despite minor setbacks, it is still growing more and more.</p><!--kg-card-begin: html--><p align="center"> <img src="https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/F2c5PQVHiBAm6XZn8uZQ-s5FWvv2Psh69TQY6PRSXC5czh6up_NgsjZCDZVDWpF3tACEeLdYHP1VHYHQW8MHrV0OHKRedz7mv_YI3xUmlE4jmQQkh4kZDwE0HKWEOk3jv_1Nsd87ztOcMq7jbGa-hWwQfekGFQOvBgX03aALJk8l7feVMFcPzdB5pEJ-1Q"> </p><!--kg-card-end: html--><p>The next question that made me curious was about the product itself and how we can describe it, in simple terms, to people outside the crypto community.</p><p>In general, all respondents mentioned that “staking is an analogue to a bank deposit”. The most intriguing fact here is that staking is a low-risk and secure product, so the client is only exposed to price fluctuations of the currency, but not staked funds.</p><p>Furthermore, our CPO was kind enough to expand my knowledge and tell me about the different products for each of our target audiences:</p><ol><li>We provide blockchain foundation teams with infrastructure and services for faster product development.</li><li>We provide investors with a single entry point to all blockchains.</li><li>We provide developers with access to blockchain data.</li></ol><p>Yep, we are that cool :)</p><p>And what is more, we have big plans in terms of our future development. Stay tuned :)</p><p>A vital aspect to mention is our success. What made our product successful?</p><p>Everyone (including me) highlights our team of amazing experts who are dedicated to the idea. At P2P.org creativity is encouraged, a positive atmosphere is fostered and high-quality standards of work are established. We do not hesitate to say that we have unique expertise in the market.</p><p>We are really open and we try to support all the members of the crypto community and help our customers (I also mean a consultant-based approach). </p><!--kg-card-begin: html--><p align="center"> <img src="https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/wYUuCkMqjKZWOHqBXDO-5rRWY3ugGk75WLz7TmtGhbzXXCzs3KECGH5rE7btWEugzyv-0JD7K8nebbaTQQzMjBAXb4hsf9Yikt27hpIvCTmwmAezzjJb7ayIXQe1p9mbh9umKCYOClMNJbN1g4SQt5PgUb3qsUR1hqTCgrcAcqGFvhmVqSV7oFrePtdPmA"> </p><!--kg-card-end: html--><p>The next question that logically follows from the previous one is "why do customers choose P2P.org?"</p><p>All of my colleagues agreed that P2P is a powerful brand with a good reputation, and over the years we have developed a good network. We try to provide the best conditions for our customers. We're also big tech geeks, with a keen interest in developing cool new tech, which further increases the confidence in our brand.</p><p>I found an expression that one of our product managers came up with extremely appropriate: he said that “we are the hipsters of the market” because of our openness and willingness to help :) We are notable in the community, including our founder - Konstantin Lomashuk. He was also mentioned a lot during my conversations with colleagues as the person whose vision they trust and I'm not surprised at all, I’ve listened to Konstatin’s story.</p><p>In particular, I would like to emphasise that the key value that P2P.org delivers to the market is our reliability.</p><p>We are participating in a new stage of development of web 3.0, and we believe that we can build a world with more accessible financial instruments.</p><p>P2P is ready to share its expertise, we definitely do an excellent job as a validator, we have become established validators in a lot of blockchain networks, so we have a broad outlook, and have accumulated a large set of knowledge and tools.</p><p>I know what you’re thinking now - WOW!</p><!--kg-card-begin: html--><p align="center"> <img src="https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/d8dzjXzU-UIR3UU6_-URFbysN580ifL0Dj4rOFOZsST9P-dR_DKIIVcnc0SW9g1KUmQOKwSTMmISyXQkRuvYU6jSxXi4TCAaRgBn5aIPjWfTN2IfA0Jhbrcn6TbPqcMeblNGDAQKYsLUY7lZHoDYLDHXKWQuP8YAMBMI4_JWTCZQ6q7SH0_a9KoQ9t-p6Q"> </p><!--kg-card-end: html--><p>Let’s move on to the Product Manager (PM) role.</p><p>In our company PM is an extremely autonomous role. We see this kind of employee as the CEO of the product. However, as you might know from the famous saying: “With great power comes great responsibility” :)</p><p>There are very general KPIs a PM has to complete and there is the possibility to do it your own way. Our position is amazing for anybody that is tired of being constrained by bureaucratic procedures in corporations (usually), but instead wants to express themselves, experiment and find new ways to develop the product. On one hand, a PM is an entrepreneur, on the other, a PM can be considered an engineer (because there should be a technical background to understand the infrastructure).</p><p>Actually, the PM here is a superstar, the most “rock‘n’roll” position :)</p><p>So what is expected from the PM?</p><p>We’re looking for energetic doers, who can lead the team, we expect the PM to be the face of the company in the chosen ecosystem.</p><p>Sounds like a dream, doesn’t it?</p><!--kg-card-begin: html--><p align="center"> <img src="https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/H-k03pXy8TxoZkSr9z4opDubyChCuFUkH9voJ-cYREPMLEcjGzjf6EsOi6Seu23RQ0mhqTxdzDdRQfvzdLKKGHGgJnRDpm--ZVp7VPYE8zHqseKnsjuIhUh-eFHp2JqRIbdYmvKWWbQj38nn-X2PqrXLXQDaZqd1GdCMJE3Ze46gn0QHmCuYMoVRjZ5DYA"> </p><!--kg-card-end: html--><p>It would be unfair on my part to only tell you about the good things and keep silent about the challenges we have to face.</p><p>One of the biggest obstacles you need to overcome is to understand what is happening in the industry, understand how the exact result turned out and then keep the information up-to-date (it takes a load of time).</p><p>At the same time, my colleagues also mentioned as a big task the process of going deep into blockchain (and more specifically in the chosen ecosystem, which can all be very different from each other) and building relationships with professionals and developers, when you are a new person in the market.</p><p>In addition, all blockchain networks vary from each other (as I hinted at before). Each of them has its own economy and technology, and every single time we are searching for a solution on how to perform successfully in each particular case.</p><p>Moreover, it is laborious to collect good-quality data on what generally happens in blockchains as there is no unified solution.</p><p>The difficulties mentioned above can result in a loss of focus so obviously, it’s tough to concentrate and sometimes there is a lack of time for self-development. </p><p>If we speak about the company in general, of course, we have had dramatically rapid growth and that’s why our main task, for now, is establishing processes.</p><p>As you see, we are working hard to address all the challenges :)</p><!--kg-card-begin: html--><p align="center"> <img src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/CJpeWxhGyPoVznOmzX2iYEIFBANJH1q_rUZttCaOK0ZLqc1wPWreNMhthKVIJNyixsjlcbyybw2mpBJ6qX3Ag-3e1fojZ9C_LNLN8IUjFPOT3AFF06Gr3B0JPnlkNHGiTln37voPtrlxxOQnfa8vxXSn-2beyPDAH_9X1TTlaJ3qIl9JzwuoYHQyiXjfdw"> </p><!--kg-card-end: html--><p>My last question was “Why are you here?”. Such an intriguing question, many of the respondents smiled at that moment :)</p><p>Part of the answers are devoted to Konstantin. His drive and vision captures everyone! As a founder, he has an understandable value system, which is easy to live with, because it does not deceive people, both externally (customers) and internally (employees).</p><p>Undoubtedly, plenty of answers were about the idea of a prospective market and accessible financial instruments for people. Also, that crypto is an industry filled with innovations.</p><p>And finally, we’ve come to our superpower, our team :) Everyone (can you imagine?) emphasised that here at P2P, we have a team of experts, with their own unique approach and ownership culture. Together we gain experience and make dreams come true!</p><p>Evidently, at P2P, there are a lot of possibilities for self-realisation. </p><p>After all of the above, I can only say that there are even more victories and achievements ahead of us because we have the most important component of success. Yes, you’ve got it, it's our team.</p><p>I hope you enjoyed your time here with me :)</p><p>-Anna Sukhodolskaya</p><hr><h3 id="about-p2p"><strong>About P2P</strong></h3><p><a href="https://p2p.org/">P2P Validator</a> is a world-leading staking provider with the best industry security practices and proven expertise. We provide comprehensive due diligence on digital assets and offer only top-notch staking opportunities. At the time of the latest update, <strong><strong>more than 1,5 billion USD is staked with P2P Validator by over 25,000 delegators across 25+ networks.</strong></strong> </p>

P2P Validator

from p2p validator

Near A look at the Top 5 most exciting events in Near history

<p>It has been a little over two years since Near's mainnet launched and a wave of web 3.0 mass adoption started. The network has achieved over 20M accounts, 200M transactions and 800 on-chain projects.</p><p>We at P2P have decided to look back at the history of Near and highlight the events that caused the highest on-chain activity. We analyzed the dynamics of the daily number of transactions and new accounts, gathered data on how many likes Near official Twitter account collected and present all of this on a chart. Through our analysis, we spotted 5 big spikes and examined the events that caused them.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/p-k8p0tT1bSupBucMyf6ycLmnE9LtwWx828km08s1AXwNARd4R6PHiOnKuksk2_lzmz5cTpxum9BZqmu8pOPMcDQAz1DZHf4_HZ9UtCPyHBHHerb1Y3_5mP1uKA9AvFSQtLd0TpPl-z9aUcVMp2laBR19SQTiq0AH8kL6GoHhTrWNqo-DOMrDn1sN-unLA" class="kg-image" alt="Near blockchain transactions" loading="lazy"></figure><h3 id="huge-funding-raisejanuary-10-to-16-2022">Huge Funding Raise -  January 10 to 16, 2022 </h3><p>On January 10, 2022, Forbes listed Near as the 3rd fastest-growing crypto ecosystem, based on the growth of the number of full-time developers from 2020 to 2021. This tweet became the most-liked in the history of @NEARprotocol (33.7k likes and 2.7k retweets). As of today, Near is still in the top 4 by weekly active developers.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/MTJRdrelmBd2WgA3SZU-viQejaVA4o1oCHg4DpkC5ZnNXynz9USvmvcTYUBypGiAuFgoUYf_5P4iq2S41v5aTt6dFVeP0fD1-hOCcJKofHG4qHIn49MVPXUI4Lv1mHk-Zn0ypYtwNCxfXBM5mgXxUUYjXECUj0ZniKDUrgJySzqWS4l9eJMlNsWSa6MbJg" class="kg-image" alt="The 10 Fastest-Growing Cruptoccurency Ecosystems" loading="lazy"></figure><p>Shortly after, Near raised $150 million, supported by crypto-native funds including Mechanism Capital, Dragonfly Capital, a16z, Jump, Zee Prime, FoliuBN s, Amber Group, 6th Man Ventures, Circle Ventures, and MetaWeb Ventures.</p><p>“With multichain interoperability of Rainbow Bridge, Aurora (EVM), Octopus (Substrate), and NEAR native’s Nightshade sharding technology, NEAR is best suited for empowering blockchain applications for mainstream adoption,” said Amos Zhang, founder of MetaWeb Ventures.</p><p>Taking into consideration that only $65.9M were previously raised, such a massive investment led to a surge in interest in Near and the second-largest spike in the number of transactions and accounts was registered (up to 1.8M transactions and 0.6M new accounts a day).</p><h3 id="nft-boom-and-near-crowdmarch-15-to-21-2022">NFT BOOM and NEAR Crowd - March 15 to 21, 2022</h3><p>From March 15 to March 21, the Near network reached over 1M transactions and 270k accounts. During this time the Network achieved over 4 million total accounts and was equipped with strong developer tools attracting more and more enthusiasts to build their project.</p><p>One such project was NEARApss - an NFT platform that provided a convenient way to create and share digital art. On 20th March it generated over 500k transactions but shortly after became inactive.</p><p>The second most popular dApp back then which generated over 39k transactions/day was NEAR Crowd. It is a service that allows people to earn NEAR by completing small tasks like describing an image, writing an article or transcribing short audio clips, which are usually aimed at training machine learning algorithms. To ensure tasks are completed properly, some people are paid to verify that tasks were completed accurately. To keep these workers vigilant, honeypots exist. Honeypots are tasks that are intentionally completed with mistakes.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/11/image.png" class="kg-image" alt="NEAR crowd - complete tasks to earn NEAR" loading="lazy" width="1600" height="1151" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2022/11/image.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2022/11/image.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/11/image.png 1600w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>For small tasks, the price varies from 0.1 to 1 NEAR while more significant tasks could pay up to 5 NEAR. Working 2-3h a day could generate a 400-800$ income per month.</p><h3 id="sweatcoinmay-1-to-6-2022">Sweatcoin - May 1 to 6, 2022</h3><p>In April 2022 Sweatcoin announced a partnership with Near. On May 4th Sweatcoin airdrop generated over 0.5M transactions which made the network exceed 1.2M daily transactions.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/11/image-2.png" class="kg-image" alt="Sweatcoin - earn SWEAT" loading="lazy" width="1600" height="829" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2022/11/image-2.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2022/11/image-2.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/11/image-2.png 1600w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>Sweatcoin is a free app that rewards users’ daily steps with a native token SWEAT. It’s the #1 app in over 60 countries and has 120M+ accounts.</p><p>Right now you can earn 1 SWEAT - which is around 0.02$ - for every 1 000 steps. However, tokens get increasingly more difficult to mint as time passes. This means that over time it will require increasingly more steps to gain SWEAT. It is also only possible to mint SWEAT for the first 5000 steps done each day, the subsequent 5000 will reward you with Sweatcoin - a token that can not be traded and is only used for rewards in the Sweatcoin shop.</p><h3 id="pizzamakeraugust-21-to-22-2022">Pizzamaker - August 21 to 22, 2022</h3><p>On August 22, we witnessed the largest spike in transactions in Near history. Over 2M transactions and more than 75% came from one account named “pizzamaker.near”.</p><p>No one knows for sure what was the real purpose behind those transactions. We analyzed the behaviour of this account and noticed that most of the transactions were related to Ref Finance and Jumbo, the biggest exchange platforms on Near. He was active from February 2022 and on average sends around 2k transactions per day. However, on August 20 and 21 this account made 1.2M and 1.6M transactions respectively and paid over $15k in fees. Taking everything into consideration,  we assume that this is an arbitrage bot that was misconfigured at that point in time.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/11/image-5.png" class="kg-image" alt="Near transactions by month 2022" loading="lazy" width="1600" height="693" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2022/11/image-5.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2022/11/image-5.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/11/image-5.png 1600w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><h3 id="nearconseptember-11-to-14-2022">Nearcon - September 11 to 14, 2022</h3><p>On September 11, the Near foundation held the incredible Nearcon event. It took place in Lisbon and had 3 giant stages and over 220 speakers. Big announcements were expected at this conference and it attracted more than 100k new users every day which fueled the network with more than 1M transactions per day.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/11/image-1.png" class="kg-image" alt="Nearcon 2022 in Lisbon" loading="lazy" width="1600" height="901" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2022/11/image-1.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2022/11/image-1.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/11/image-1.png 1600w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>Here’s a highlight of the most notable announcements:</p><p><strong>Nightshade Sharding Phase 1 launch</strong> - an important mechanism that helps scale the network and keep transaction fees low.</p><p><strong>Javascript SDK release</strong> - a collection of software development tools, that made it possible to write smart contracts in JavaScript, by far one of the most popular programming languages. The Near network and web3.0 apps became accessible to 12 million JS developers.</p><p><strong>USDT release</strong> - USDT is a popular stablecoin and it was announced to be launching on Near.</p><p><strong>NDC introduction</strong> - a community-driven initiative to empower ecosystem-wide decentralization through transparent governance, on-chain decision-making and treasury management.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/11/image-3.png" class="kg-image" alt="NEAR" loading="lazy" width="1600" height="806" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2022/11/image-3.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2022/11/image-3.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/11/image-3.png 1600w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>For the past 2 years, Near has seen a lot of activity and growth. There’s still a lot more to come and at P2P we are excited to be part of this journey. </p><p>To support the community and celebrate NEAR, we are offering a 0% fee on Near staking until the end of 2022. Visit <a href="p2p.org/near">p2p.org/near</a> for more details. </p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/11/image-4.png" class="kg-image" alt="Near staking - 0% fee" loading="lazy" width="1600" height="901" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2022/11/image-4.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2022/11/image-4.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/11/image-4.png 1600w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><hr><h3 id="about-p2p"><strong>About P2P</strong></h3><p><a href="https://p2p.org/">P2P Validator</a> is a world-leading staking provider with the best industry security practices and proven expertise. We provide comprehensive due diligence on digital assets and offer only top-notch staking opportunities. At the time of the latest update, <strong><strong>more than 1,5 billion USD is staked with P2P Validator by over 25,000 delegators across 25+ networks.</strong></strong> </p><p></p><p><br></p><p><br></p><p><br></p><p><br></p><p><br></p><p><br></p><p><br></p><p><br></p><p><br></p>

P2P Validator

from p2p validator

Chainlink Chainlink staking overview

<p>Staking will be a major breakthrough for Chainlink and the community from a number of different perspectives. Let us uncover how you put your LINK tokens to use and get rewards for helping Chainlink secure DeFi and the larger Web3 ecosystem.</p><h2 id="chainlink-recap"><strong>Chainlink recap</strong></h2><p>As you know, Chainlink is the industry standard oracle network that has enabled over $6.4 trillion in transaction value across Ethereum, Polygon, Solana, and 12 other blockchain networks, at the time of writing. They do so by providing highly available and accurate on-chain market data, for hundreds of data feeds. When you use a DeFi application on Ethereum, it is highly likely that it leverages Chainlink Data Feeds to get the latest token prices in order to execute a lending, swap, or any other smart contract.</p><p>The Chainlink Network achieves decentralization and security in two ways:</p><ul><li>A node operator uses multiple data APIs to get price updates, so that if one of them fails, the others still can provide accurate information;</li><li>Multiple node operators handle the same price feed, so that if a few of them fail to provide an accurate data update, the reported price can still be relied upon.</li></ul><p>The value in this approach to decentralization has been shown time and again during periods of extreme market volatility, when Chainlink’s multiple layers of decentralization and defence-in-depth design help mitigate the risk of market manipulation, oracle attacks, and other exploits.</p><p>P2P has been operating on Chainlink for the last two years and <strong>supports </strong>price feeds and <strong>automation </strong>for Ethereum, Solana, Moonriver, Fantom, Harmony, and Avalanche.</p><h2 id="why-implement-staking-now"><strong>Why implement staking now?</strong></h2><p>As the total value secured by Chainlink oracle networks grows, the reward for a hypothetical attack increases, hence a need for increased cryptoeconomic security that maximizes the cost of attack for malicious actors. As of now, the node operators are sufficiently decentralized and perform well enough so that further improvements in this area only provide marginal gains. Staking however, can drive way more significant security improvements via new incentives for the node operators and token holders.</p><h3 id="how-staking-is-going-to-work">How staking is going to work</h3><p>Node operators and the broader Chainlink community will be able to stake their LINK via node operators and get rewards for helping enhance the cryptoeconomic security of the network. ‌‌‌‌Providing accurate and timely feed updates is necessary for the node operators to actually receive those rewards and in order to enforce the best data quality.</p><p>In the early-stage beta implementation of Chainlink Staking, v0.1, stakers will have the opportunity to monitor the feed, raise an alert, and get rewarded if they successfully detect in a timely manner that the ETH/USD feed has not met certain performance requirements. In v0.1, alerting conditions will be focused on feed uptime but will expand in scope in later versions.</p><p>The Chainlink Staking design is quite complex, so its elements are going to be brought forward step by step.</p><h2 id="who-can-stake-during-early-access"><strong>Who can stake during Early Access</strong></h2><p>According to a Chainlink <a href="https://blog.chain.link/chainlink-staking-early-access-eligibility-app/">blog</a> post, there are 3 criteria for participating in the Chainlink Staking v0.1 Early Access which will launch on mainnet in December 2022:</p><!--kg-card-begin: html--><table style="border:none;border-collapse:collapse;"><colgroup><col width="132"><col width="700"></colgroup><tbody><tr style="height:0pt"><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">Criteria</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">Details</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:0pt"><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">Hodler</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">Token holders who fall into either category:</span></p><ol style="margin-top:0;margin-bottom:0;padding-inline-start:48px;"><li dir="ltr" style="list-style-type:decimal;font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;" aria-level="1"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;" role="presentation"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">Held more than 7 LINK on the Ethereum Mainnet for at least 50% of the time between May 30, 2019 and June 7, 2022.</span></p></li><li dir="ltr" style="list-style-type:decimal;font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;" aria-level="1"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;" role="presentation"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">Held more than 7 LINK on the Ethereum Mainnet for at least 90% of the time between August 5, 2021 and June 7, 2022.</span></p></li></ol></td></tr><tr style="height:0pt"><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">Builder</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">Participating teams in any Chainlink-hosted hackathon from Fall 2020 to Spring 2022.&nbsp;</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:0pt"><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">Educator</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">Chainlink Advocates, Developer Experts, and others who have demonstrably hosted or spoken at Chainlink meetups about the Chainlink Network or Chainlink Ecosystem.</span></p></td></tr></tbody></table><!--kg-card-end: html--><p></p><p>You can use the <a href="https://staking.chain.link/">Early Access Eligibility App</a> to check their eligibility for potential priority access staking in Staking v0.1.</p><h2 id="roadmap"><strong>Roadmap</strong></h2><p>As we discussed previously. The primary goal of Chainlink is to increase the security behind the infrastructure that supports DeFi. As outlined in a<a href="https://blog.chain.link/chainlink-staking-roadmap/"> blog</a> post, Chainlink Staking is being designed with four long-term goals in mind:</p><ol><li>Increase the security and user assurances of Chainlink oracle services;</li><li>Enable a more direct community participation in the Chainlink Network and its security;</li><li>Generate sustainable rewards from real use cases;</li><li>Empower node operators to access higher-value jobs by staking.</li></ol><p>Like previous Chainlink updates the implementation of LINK staking is being done gradually. While the initial focus will be on building a reputation framework and staker alerting system, the second stage will look to implement slashing to further boost security and user fees as rewards. Last but not least, loss protection is being studied to help protect participants when an oracle network deviates from its service-level agreement.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/9L51EIVEys0m61Qv2piTcYCpMmVA4bhUvVnQYbSzw7TyHNLGn_vZ7qP4vJQ4IzBFnRTR0R-3peKdmNwAfYhNsvSzaaxl1xZOPK9g40jOjIbBK6qW6-LMXJh_E0y9-FqnDr2bGZkeV0Kph_4cwpeYXXVVvH36thLJJ5cDdHadX0sSvhaZjMh8Miecxw" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy"></figure><p>The first version of staking is expected to go live by the end of 2022. Stay tuned!</p><h2 id="whats-next"><strong>What's next</strong></h2><p>At P2P, we are watching closely as LINK staking gets close to launch, and will post updates on this topic here in the blog as soon as more details are found. We are also exploring what kind of tools we can bring forward to help the community. So watch this space, much more to come in the near future!</p><p><a href="https://staking.chain.link/">Check your eligibility for Early Access to Chainlink Staking v0.1</a>. </p><p>Contacts us if you are interested in staking LINK:</p><p>Email : <a href="mailto:[email protected]" rel="noopener noreferrer">[email protected]</a></p><p>Telegram: <a href="https://t.me/P2Pstaking">P2Pstaking</a></p><p>Twitter: <a href="https://twitter.com/P2Pvalidator">@P2Pvalidator</a></p><hr><h3 id="about-p2p"><strong><strong><strong>About P2P</strong></strong></strong></h3><p><a href="https://p2p.org/">P2P Validator</a> is a world-leading staking provider with the best industry security practices and proven expertise. We provide comprehensive due diligence on digital assets and offer only top-notch staking opportunities. At the time of the latest update, <strong><strong>more than 1,5 billion USD is staked with P2P Validator by over 25,000 delegators across 25+ networks.</strong></strong> </p>

P2P Validator

from p2p validator

Lido on Solana upgrade announcement and timeline

<p>We are happy to announce the upgrade of the Lido on Solana program from December,6 to December, 8.</p><p>This upgrade focuses on validators in order to enable a more healthy validator economy: allowing operators to use their existing public Solana nodes with a commission of not more than 5%.</p><p>The proposal has successfully gone through <a href="https://snapshot.org/#/lido-snapshot.eth/proposal/0x5844beba37131b3621c5c96621603db7cb7e2771d1c690dc6869ebd117e12abb">Lido DAO voting</a> , and the program code was <a href="https://reports.neodyme.io/reports/lido_v2_report/">audited</a> by <a href="https://neodyme.io/">Neodyme</a>.</p><h2 id="why">Why</h2><p>The reasoning and other details on this update are described in this <a href="https://research.lido.fi/t/lido-on-solana-protocol-upgrade-proposal/2959">forum post</a>. This update is mainly aimed at changes in how the contract work with validators, these are the main points:</p><ul><li>Validators will not need to set withdraw authority to Lido anymore and they will receive block rewards and staking rewards in SOL (instead of stSOL) to their accounts directly.</li><li>There is no need for 100% commission nodes, so node operators can use their public node in the Lido set or make their existing Lido node public.</li><li>Set the maximum node commission to 5% to be eligible to receive a delegation from Lido on Solana.</li></ul><p>As per our<a href="https://p2p.org/economy/lido-on-solana-validator-set-vision/"> vision of a decentralized validator set</a>, we look to enable a more healthy validator economy where new and existing validators can look to participate. Our goal is to create a sustainable, high-performance validator set for Solana.</p><h2 id="rewards-distribution-model-change">Rewards distribution model change</h2><p>As an expected result of the changes above, the staking rewards distribution model will change slightly.</p><ul><li>In the current version of the smart contract, all the rewards are distributed simultaneously and precisely between node operators (5%), the DAO treasury (4%), the developers (1%), and the stakers (90%).</li><li>After the update, the 5% (max, it can be set lower) goes to the node operator, then from the remainder, the DAO treasury (4%) and the developer (1%) fees are subtracted. The remaining share goes to the stakers.</li></ul><p>As a result, the share of the treasury and the developer decreased slightly, the validator’s share remains the same, and the staker’s part (APY) increases slightly.</p><h2 id="update-timeline">Update timeline</h2><p>All these changes were published as proposals (<a href="https://research.lido.fi/t/lido-on-solana-protocol-upgrade-proposal/2959">main contract changes</a> and <a href="https://research.lido.fi/t/lido-on-solana-maximum-validator-commission-proposal/2979">max commission setting</a>) on the Lido research forum. We also launched a <a href="https://snapshot.org/#/lido-snapshot.eth/proposal/0x5844beba37131b3621c5c96621603db7cb7e2771d1c690dc6869ebd117e12abb">DAO voting</a> concerning these changes, which ended successfully on the 25th of October.</p><p>We divided the update process into 3 main phases: preparation, program update, and post-deployment phases.</p><h2 id="preparation-phase">Preparation phase</h2><p><strong>Duration:</strong> 1 epoch;<br><strong>Impact:</strong> none;</p><p>During this phase, we will deactivate all the validators. This will be achieved by creating a special transaction and having multisig owners sign it. Validators will be deactivated at the start of the next epoch.</p><p>We plan to execute this transaction at the end of the epoch, so for most of the epoch, everything will work as expected.</p><h2 id="program-update-phase">Program update phase</h2><p><strong>Duration</strong>: 1 epoch;<br><strong>Impact:</strong> Unstake commands can’t be performed, validators are not voting, and not getting any rewards.</p><p>During this phase, all the stake is stored in Lido on Solana reserve account, and all the validators are deactivated and not voting. During this phase users still can stake their SOL and get stSOL, but obviously can not unstake. They can operate their stSOL in DeFI apps without any issues though.</p><p>In this epoch, we will update the program and bring it to life by creating a special transaction. Multisig owners will check and sign it. The updated program will start working on the next epoch.</p><p>During this epoch, validators are to configure their nodes to participate in the Lido pool with new requirements (public node, ≤5% commission). At the end of this phase, we create another transaction that will add the validators to the Lido on Solana pool on the next epoch.</p><p>Maintainer bots also have to update their program and restart in this phase too.</p><h2 id="post-deployment-phase">Post-deployment phase  </h2><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><p><strong>Duration:</strong> 2-4 hours<br> <strong>Impact:</strong> none</p> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>In this phase, everything starts working as intended. We will check if the validators’ nodes work correctly, vote, and get rewards. We also going to run the final tests and make sure that all the partners work correctly with our updated CLI, staking and unstacking operations can be performed.</p><p>After this phase, the update concludes.</p><h1 id="summary">Summary</h1><p>As an expected result of the program update process, we are losing rewards for one epoch, and users can’t perform unstake operations during the program update phase.</p><p>This will result in an insignificant APY decrease, but we consider this a reasonable loss and hope to compensate for it with a better-performing validator pool and small changes in the rewards distribution model, as described in the DAO voting proposal.</p><h1 id="documentation-and-guides">Documentation and guides</h1><ul><li>Research forum proposals: <a href="https://research.lido.fi/t/lido-on-solana-protocol-upgrade-proposal/2959">1</a>,<a href="https://research.lido.fi/t/lido-on-solana-maximum-validator-commission-proposal/2979">2</a></li><li><a href="https://snapshot.org/#/lido-snapshot.eth/proposal/0x5844beba37131b3621c5c96621603db7cb7e2771d1c690dc6869ebd117e12abb">LIDO DAO Voting</a></li><li><a href="https://docs.solana.lido.fi/frontend-integration/manual-instructions/">Migration guide for external integrations</a></li></ul>

P2P Validator

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Aptos P2P Joins Aptos as a node operator

<p>There are multiple blockchain based platforms with different value propositions and smart-contract functionalities. In order to scale, most layer one blockchains need a second layers that break composability and increase developer complexity. Aptos focuses on safety and user experience aiming to achieve mass adoption at scale within a single layer. The team behind it came from the Libra Blockchain with more than three years of research and development experience on their hands.</p><p>Aptos utilizes Move, a programming language developed specifically to tackle security issues. A formal verification tool will help decrease the probability of smart contract bugs. Offering access control, Move ensures that only public module functions may be accessed by other modules. Modules in Move may either be a library or a program that can create, store, or transfer assets.</p><p>Aptos ecosystem should become a friendly environment for developers that prioritize user experience. With existing safety properties it can become a convenient place to build decentralized and secure applications.</p><p>With that in mind, <em>P2P is thrilled to become Aptos partner and participate in the mainnet launch to make the network secure from the very beginning. Aptos value proposition is fully in line with our mission of making crypto secure simple and accessible to everyone.</em></p><p>Our team has deep expertise in operating highly-available infrastructure. We utilize first-class security practices, custom monitoring and alerting systems to ensure a high level of efficiency from our nodes. P2P provides 24/7 technical support, transparent reward reporting and our support team is always ready to help.</p><p>If you have at least 1 million APT and want to launch your own whitelabel node for Aptos, feel free to contact us on <a href="https://p2p.org/networks/aptos">p2p.org/networks/aptos</a> to benefit from our special offer.</p><h3 id="about-aptos"><strong>About Aptos</strong></h3><p>Aptos is a secure and scalable blockchain platform that aims to open access to decentralized assets for billions of people around the world. The team consists of the original creators, researchers, designers, and builders of Diem having 3+ years of research and development in this field. Aptos raised ~$350M from Andreessen Horowitz, Multicoin Capital, Circle Ventures, FTX Ventures, Jump Crypto and other notable VCs to grow the ecosystem at lightning speed.</p><p>Learn more by visiting<a href="https://web3auth.io/"> </a><a href="https://aptoslabs.com/">official website</a> and <a href="https://twitter.com/AptosLabs"> Twitter</a>. If you are a dApp developer, start<a href="https://aptos.dev/"> here</a> and join the discussion on<a href="https://discord.com/invite/aptoslabs"> Discord</a>.</p><h3 id="about-p2p"><strong>About P2P</strong></h3><p><a href="https://p2p.org/">P2P Validator</a> is a world-leading staking provider with the best industry security  practices and proven expertise. We provide comprehensive due-diligence  of digital assets and offer only top-notch staking opportunities. At the time of the latest update, <strong>more than 1,5 billion of USD value is staked with P2P Validator by over 25,000 delegators across 25+ networks.</strong> We have successfully participated in AIT3 and joined Aptos as a partner. P2P is committed to the long term success of the Aptos.</p>

P2P Validator

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Solana How to stake Solana (SOL)?

<!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><p>Table of Contents</p> <ul> <li><a href="#T1"><span style=" font-size:16px"> What is Solana (SOL) Staking? </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T2"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Why Stake Solana (SOL) with P2P? </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T3"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Solana (SOL) Staking Rewards &amp; Fees<br> </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T4"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Solana (SOL) Warm-up &amp; Reward Distribution Frequency </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T5"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Solana (SOL) Undelegation Period </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T6"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Partially Delegating and Undelegating Solana (SOL) with Solflare </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T7"><span style=" font-size:16px"> How to Track my Solana (SOL) Staking Rewards<br> </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T8"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Monitoring Solana (SOL) Staking Rewards Using Solflare Wallet </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T9"><span style=" font-size:16px"> How Do I Claim Solana (SOL) Staking Rewards? </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T10"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Solana Liquid staking </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T11"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Solflare + Ledger Solana (SOL) Staking Guide </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T12"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Solflare Solana (SOL) Staking Guide </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T13"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Phantom Solana (SOL) Staking Guide </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T14"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Solana (SOL) Staking FAQ </span></a></li> </ul> <h2 id="what-is-solana-sol-staking-a-namet1a">What is Solana (SOL) Staking? <a name="T1"></a></h2> <p>When staking Solana (SOL) you are supporting the network with the additional benefit of compounding your SOL!</p> <p>Staking SOL is the process of holding SOL &quot;stake&quot; to partake and support the operations in the Solana network to receive rewards. In order to be a &quot;Validator&quot; and participate in these operations, one is required to maintain a server running continuously, technological knowhow, experience, and have a significant self-bond (surety bond).<br> This is where P2P Validator comes in, we allow SOL token holders to forget about all the heavy lifting i.e maintenance, surety bonds etc. by &quot;delegating&quot; their holdings to P2P to receive these rewards. We accumulate users' stake and act as a major validation node, receiving and allocating staking rewards between our users pro rata to the delegation.</p> <p>Users that chose to stake with P2P maintain full custody of their SOL at all times and P2P will never have access to them.</p> <h2 id="why-stake-solana-sol-with-p2p-a-namet2a">Why Stake Solana (SOL) with P2P? <a name="T2"></a></h2> <p>P2P is a leading Solana validator with more than 4 million in staked SOL, the highest network reliability &amp; low staking fees. We monitor and maintain Solana nodes to ensure maximum efficiency for SOL stakers.</p> <p>As we are SOL seed investors, it is very important to define the best means of network management and development. Our technical team has been involved in all of the Tour de Sol dry runs with the highest efficiency and has participated in all of TdS and SLP. We are a major player in all networks we support because of our experience, commitments and our reputation. We pay special attention to the process of governance. Our aim is to provide a secure and reliable service at the lowest cost maximising rewards for our delegators.</p> <h3 id="so-why-stake-sol-with-p2p">So why stake SOL with P2P?</h3> <ul> <li>High performance: low skip rate, high uptime</li> <li>Own Skin in the game with 2M+ SOL</li> <li>Secure, non-custodial staking</li> <li>Solana seed investors and contributors.</li> <li>Experienced DevOps’s team (Working with Solana from 2019)</li> <li>Ecosystem contributors (Solana Wormhole Hackaton winners)</li> <li>24/7 monitoring of machine and protocol metrics</li> </ul> <p>P2P Validator provides additional benefits for Stakers with more than 100k SOL, making it the best place for large investors. Get in touch with us here to learn more about how we can address your staking needs.</p> <h2 id="solana-sol-staking-rewards-fees-a-namet3a">Solana (SOL) Staking Rewards &amp; Fees <a name="T3"></a></h2> <p>You will be earning an estimated 7% APR when staking Solana (SOL) with P2P.</p> <p>In order to run the staking infrastructure, we charge a 7% fee on your rewards. The rewards after taking the fee into consideration will therefore be 6.51%.</p> <p>Example:</p> <p>I delegate 1000 SOL to P2P</p> <p>Reward: 10007% = 70 SOL<br> Fee = 707% = 4.9 SOL</p> <p>Estimated balance after 1 year = 1000+70-4.9 = 1065.1 SOL</p> <p>Please keep in mind that the APR specified is approximate and changes along with network conditions.</p> <h2 id="solana-sol-warm-up-reward-distribution-frequency-a-namet4a">Solana (SOL) Warm-up &amp; Reward Distribution Frequency <a name="T4"></a></h2> <p>One epoch in the SOL network lasts approximately 2-3 days.</p> <p>You will start earning rewards once your delegation goes from activating to effective, which takes one full epoch. You will then receive your rewards in the following epoch.</p> <p>Lets assume you select to delegate your SOL in epoch E1:</p> <p>E1: Your SOL is activating (up to approx. 2-3 days)<br> E2: Your SOL is effective (approx. 2-3 days)<br> E3: Receive your rewards for epoch E2</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/1-2.png" alt="Reward frequency"> </p> <p>Once your SOL stake is active, you will receive rewards every epoch. Rewards will automatically be added and compounded to your staked balance.</p> <h2 id="solana-sol-undelegation-period-a-namet5a">Solana (SOL) Undelegation Period <a name="T5"></a></h2> <p>One epoch in the SOL network lasts around 2-3 days.</p> <p>It takes one full epoch to deactivate your SOL delegation - once finished you will be able to withdraw it. This will include your original stake and any rewards you earned.</p> <p>Lets assume you select to undelegate your SOL in epoch E1:</p> <p>E1: Will start deactivating your Stake.<br> E2: Stake is undelegated and is available to withdaw.</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/2-2.png" alt="Undelegation Period"> </p> <h2 id="partially-delegating-and-undelegating-solana-sol-with-solflare-a-namet6a">Partially Delegating and Undelegating Solana (SOL) with Solflare <a name="T6"></a></h2> <h3 id="main-authority-and-staking-accounts">Main Authority and Staking accounts</h3> <p>In Solflare you have a main authority address where you can transfer SOL to and from your staking account(s).</p> <p>Main authority account can be found on your &quot;Portfolio page&quot;.</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image1.png" alt="Main Authority account"> </p> <p>You cannot transfer SOL directly from one staking account to another without first going through your main authority address. Staking accounts are used in order to delegate your SOL to validators.</p> <p>Staking accounts can be found on your &quot;Staking page&quot;. In the image below you can see that I have created three staking accounts. Two are activating (meaning my delegation transaction has been confirmed buy my stake is in the warming up period), and one is inactive (not staking).</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image7.png" alt="Staking accounts"> </p> <p>Only the full amount in a staking account can be delegated or undelegated. IE within one staking account, you will not be able to input a specific amount to partially delegate or undelegate. Furthermore, delegating and undelegating have warm-up and cool-down periods respectively. For these two reasons, it is important to understand the options available to partially undelegate your SOL with staking accounts to avoid waiting.</p> <p>For example if you have 100 SOL being delegated in a staking account and you want to undelegate and withdraw 50 SOL, it would be a waste of time to undelegate 100 SOL and wait for the cool down, withdraw 50 SOL out of your account, and then delegate 50 SOL again and wait for the warm-up. During the warm-up period you will not be earning rewards.</p> <p>Fortunately, Solflare has created the option to split a staking account, which provides a solution to partially delegate or undelegate your SOL without wasting time and rewards.</p> <h3 id="splitting-accounts">Splitting accounts</h3> <p>You can only delegate or undelegate the full amount - as opposed to a partial amount - in a staking account. To delegate or undelegate a partial amount you have the option to &quot;split&quot; your staking account. This will take a staking account and it will split it into two seperate ones, with the new account being transferred the split amount of SOL. Both accounts will keep the same status as it had before (delegating, activating, or inactive).</p> <ol> <li>To find the split function, first select your account and then &quot;SPLIT&quot;.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image24.png" alt="Split Solflare account"> </p> <ol start="2"> <li>Input the amount that you would like to move out of your staking account into the new one.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image10.png" alt="Split amount"> </p> <ol start="3"> <li> <p>Confirm the transaction.</p> </li> <li> <p>Once your new staking account has been created with the split amount, you can undelegate or delegate the SOL there.</p> </li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image13.png" alt="Delegate/Undelegate SOL"> </p> <p>You will then have to wait the cooldown period before your funds are available to withdraw.</p> <h2 id="how-to-track-my-solana-sol-staking-rewards-a-namet7a">How to Track my Solana (SOL) Staking Rewards <a name="T7"></a></h2> <p>To track your rewards you can use the Solana beach explorer. This explorer allows you to track any transactions made on any address on the Solana blockchain.</p> <p>Note that some wallets, like Solflare, have a table of your staking rewards integrated in their wallet already (more info here). However, this guide will allow anyone to be able to track their SOL rewards regardless of which wallet provider they use and which validator they selected to stake with.</p> <h3 id="track-your-rewards">Track your rewards</h3> <p>First you will need to find your staking accounts address to input into the Solana beach explorer. It will be a series of 44 characters and numbers.</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image8.png" alt="Solana beach"> </p> <p>Once you have searched for your staking accounts address, scroll down and select &quot;Stake Rewards&quot;. Here you will be provided a table with your rewards for each epoch.</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image2.png" alt="Stake rewards"> </p> <p>That's it! Remember that if you have any questions along the way or would like to share some feedback, please dont hesitate to contact us as we will be more than happy to help.</p> <h2 id="monitoring-solana-sol-staking-rewards-using-solflare-wallet-a-namet8a">Monitoring Solana (SOL) Staking Rewards Using Solflare Wallet <a name="T8"></a></h2> <p>You can track the staking rewards on your Solflare staking account. In order to do so, simply go to the staking page on Solflare and select the staking account address you are interested in.</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image18.png" alt="Stake Solflare"> </p> <p>Details will appear, showing your reward payouts for each epoch that you were actively delegating.</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image17.png" alt="Reward payouts"> </p> <p>For all past epochs, you will be able to view:</p> <ul> <li>Epoch</li> <li>Amount of rewards earned</li> <li>Balance update</li> <li>APR</li> <li>Commission charged</li> <li>Date the reward was received</li> </ul> <h2 id="how-do-i-claim-solana-sol-staking-rewards-a-namet9a">How Do I Claim Solana (SOL) Staking Rewards? <a name="T9"></a></h2> <p>One epoch in Solana lasts approximately 2-3 days.</p> <p>With your effective staked SOL, you will receive rewards every 2-3 days and it will automatically be added and compounded to your staked amount.</p> <p>If you want to withdraw your rewards, you will have to first undelegate your stake.</p> <h2 id="solana-liquid-staking-a-namet10a">Solana Liquid staking <a name="T10"></a></h2> <p>The pillar of P2P's core principals has since the beginning been decentralization. We believe that cryptocurrencies and the whole emerging industry surrounding it was built upon this.</p> <p>We believe in the benefits and the work being done on liquid staking solutions for this emerging industry and this is why we are proud to be not only one of the validators for LIDO's liquid Solana staking but also in charge of it's development.</p> <p>Liquid staking is a great way to build and develop new opportunities for the cryptocurrency industry to grow on both the staking and DeFI sectors.</p> <h2 id="solflare-ledger-solana-sol-staking-guide-a-namet11a">Solflare + Ledger Solana (SOL) Staking Guide <a name="T11"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><!--kg-card-begin: html--><p align="center"> <iframe width="720" height="405" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/Qc__wcHApIg" title="YouTube video player" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe> </p><!--kg-card-end: html--><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="solflare-solana-sol-staking-guide-a-namet12a">Solflare Solana (SOL) Staking Guide <a name="T12"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><!--kg-card-begin: html--><p align="center"> <iframe width="720" height="405" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/bJzPfYAIiNk" title="YouTube video player" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe> </p><!--kg-card-end: html--><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><p>Before starting you will have to own some SOL - you can purchase it on multiple <a href="https://coinmarketcap.com/rankings/exchanges/">cryptocurrency exchanges</a>.</p> <h3 id="create-solflare-wallet">Create Solflare wallet</h3> <ol> <li>To create a wallet select &quot;Access&quot; on the Solflare page.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image30.png" alt="Solflare"> </p> <ol start="2"> <li>Then select &quot;Create a new wallet&quot;.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image3.png" alt="Create new wallet"> </p> <ol start="3"> <li>Create a password that you will use to enter your wallet and to submit transactions. Select &quot;Next&quot; to proceed.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image19.png" alt="Create password"> </p> <ol start="4"> <li>Save your Mnemonic phrase somewhere secure! You will need this to recover your account to enter it from a new device or even from a new account on a browser, or potentially after a browser upgrade. If you lose it, you will lose access to your funds! Do not share this Mnemonic phrase with anyone, anyone who has access to it will have access to your funds!</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image6.png" alt="Save Mnemonic phrase"> </p> <ol start="5"> <li>Verify your Mnemonic phrase by typing it back in. Once completed, select &quot;Verify&quot;.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image4.png" alt="Verify Mnemonic phrase"> </p> <ol start="6"> <li>That's it your wallet has been created! After successfully completing the steps above, you will find yourself in the main menu of Solflare where you will find information about your wallet account address.</li> </ol> <h3 id="transfer-sol-to-your-wallet">Transfer SOL to your wallet</h3> <ol> <li>To find your receiving address select &quot;Receive&quot;.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image12.png" alt="Receive Address"> </p> <ol start="2"> <li>A pop up window will appear with your Solflare main authority address, and alternatively a QR code. Use this receiving address to send your SOL to your Solflare wallet.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image35.png" alt="Receive SOL"> </p> <p>Once you have transferred funds into your main authority wallet, you are now ready to start Staking!</p> <h3 id="staking-solana">Staking Solana</h3> <ol> <li>To start staking, you must first go to the staking section of the wallet by selecting &quot;Staking&quot; on the top of the page. You will then be given three options, Liquid SOL Staking, Native SOL Staking, and SLRS Staking. Select &quot;Native SOL Staking&quot;. You can find more information about Liquid SOL Staking on Lido's SOL Page. Lastly select &quot;Start Staking&quot;.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image37.png" alt="Staking SOL"> </p> <ol start="2"> <li>A pop up window will appear. Input the amount you wish to stake and the validator you wish to stake with. Leave some SOL in your wallet to pay for transaction fees. Since they are very low at Solana, only a small amount is required.</li> </ol> <p>To find P2P Validator type it in the search bar. Select &quot;Stake&quot; to proceed.</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image29.png" alt="Select P2P Validator"> </p> <ol start="3"> <li>You will then be prompted to enter your password one last time for security reasons.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image33.png" alt="Enter password"> </p> <ol start="4"> <li>Once your delegation transaction has been confirmed, you will see that your stake is activating. For more information on when you will start receiving rewards please refer to our SOL Warm-Up article.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image21.png" alt="Confirm delegation"> </p> <p>That's it! You are now delegating your SOL to P2P Validator. Note that your SOL are still fully in your custody, but you are delegating them to P2P to help us partake in network activities and you will be rewarded for your contribution!</p> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="phantom-solana-sol-staking-guide-a-namet13a">Phantom Solana (SOL) Staking Guide <a name="T13"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><!--kg-card-begin: html--><p align="center"> <iframe width="720" height="405" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/TXZF78L-wPg" title="YouTube video player" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe> </p><!--kg-card-end: html--><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><p>Before starting you will have to own some SOL - you can purchase it on multiple <a href="https://coinmarketcap.com/rankings/exchanges/">cryptocurrency exchanges</a>.</p> <h3 id="create-phantom-wallet-and-transfer-sol-to-it">Create Phantom Wallet and transfer SOL to it.</h3> <ol> <li>To start, you will want to download the Phantom extension on their <a href="https://phantom.app/">page</a>.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image28.png" alt="Download phantom wallet"> </p> <ol start="2"> <li>If the wallet page does not open up automatically after downloaded, you should select Phantom in your list of extensions. If you are using Google chrome, you can find your extension in the top right of the page.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image9.png" alt="Phantom wallet extension"> </p> <ol start="3"> <li>To create a wallet select &quot;Create New Wallet&quot;</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image31.png" alt="Create new Phantom wallet"> </p> <ol start="4"> <li>You will first be asked to save your Secrete Recovery Phrase. Save it somewhere secure! You will need this to recover your account to enter it from a new device or even from a new account on a browser, or potentially after a browser upgrade. If you lose it, you will lose access to your funds! Do not share this Secret Recovery Phrase with anyone, anyone who has access to it will have access to your funds!</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image27.png" alt="Save Secret Recovery Phrase"> </p> <ol start="5"> <li>Create a password that you will use to enter your wallet when you are logging in from the same device. Select &quot;Save&quot; to proceed.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image25.png" alt="Create a password for Phantom Wallet"> </p> <ol start="6"> <li>Once you have saved your password and proceeded to the next stages, you will have successfully created your wallet!</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image32.png" alt="Successfully create phantom wallet"> </p> <p>7.You will then want to transfer your SOL into your Phantom wallet where you will have fully custody of your SOL. To find your receiving address select &quot;Receive&quot;.</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image5.png" alt="Receive SOL"> </p> <ol start="8"> <li>To find you wallet address select &quot;Send from wallet / Exchange&quot; or alternatively you can Deposit SOL straight from FTX.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image14.png" alt="Find Phantom Wallet Address"> </p> <ol start="9"> <li>Phantom will provide you with a QR code as well as a button to copy your wallet address. You can use this receiving address to send your SOL to your Phantom wallet.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image20.png" alt="Receive SOL on Phantom"> </p> <p>Once you have transferred funds into you main authority wallet, you are now ready to start Staking!</p> <h3 id="staking-solana">Staking Solana</h3> <ol> <li>To start start staking go back to the main page of your wallet and select Solana.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image22.png" alt="Start Staking SOL on Phantom Wallet"> </p> <ol start="2"> <li>Select &quot;Start earning SOL&quot;.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image26.png" alt="Start Earning SOL"> </p> <ol start="3"> <li>To find P2P Validator type it in the search bar. Select it to proceed.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image36.png" alt="Find P2P Validator"> </p> <ol start="4"> <li>Enter the amount you wish to stake and select &quot;Stake&quot; to send out the delegation transaction.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image23.png" alt="Enter SOL Staking Amount"> </p> <ol start="5"> <li>Phantom will create a separate staking account for your stake and then will delegate it to P2P Validator.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image15.png" alt="Staking Account"> </p> <ol start="6"> <li>Once you see this message, your delegation transaction has now successfully been sent out!</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image38.png" alt="SOL Staked"> </p> <ol start="7"> <li>You will see that your stake is activating. For more information on when you will start receiving rewards please refer to our SOL Warm-Up article.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image11.png" alt="SOL Stake Activating"> </p> <p>That's it! You are now delegating your SOL to P2P Validator. Note that your SOL are still fully in your custody, but you are delegating them to P2P to help us partake in network activities and you will be rewarded for your contribution!</p> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="solana-sol-staking-faq-a-namet14a">Solana (SOL) Staking FAQ <a name="T14"></a></h2> <h3 id="what-is-solana">What is Solana?</h3> <p>Solana is a high-performance permissionless blockchain solving scalability issues without sharding and suitable for decentralized applications requiring high throughput.</p> <h3 id="what-is-the-solana-staking-apr">What is the Solana staking APR?</h3> <p>The Solana staking reward is approximately 7%. More info here.</p> <h3 id="how-often-are-staking-rewards-distributed">How often are staking rewards distributed?</h3> <p>Solana staking rewards are paid out to stakers approximately every epoch (2-3 days). More info here.</p> <h3 id="is-there-an-unstaking-period">Is there an unstaking period?</h3> <p>It can take up to 3 days for your SOL tokens to be transferable. More info here.</p> <h3 id="is-there-a-slashing-risk-for-validators">Is there a slashing risk for validators?</h3> <p>There is currently no slashing risk for Solana validators.</p> <h3 id="is-there-a-minimum-staking-amount-for-solana">Is there a minimum staking amount for Solana?</h3> <p>There is no minimum staking amount for SOL stakers.</p> <h3 id="do-staking-rewards-compound">Do staking rewards compound?</h3> <p>Yes, Solana staking rewards are compounded automatically.</p> <h3 id="what-is-the-solana-inflation-rate">What is the Solana inflation rate?</h3> <p>The Solana network inflation rate is approximately 8% per year.</p> <!--kg-card-end: markdown-->

P2P Validator

from p2p validator

Axelar Axelar (AXL) Staking Guide

<p>This tutorial helps you stake and manage AXL tokens on the Axelar network, using the <a href="https://keplr.app/">Keplr</a> Wallet.</p><p>You must also have the native AXL token on the Axelar network. If you have an ERC-20 version of the token follow this <a href="https://axelar.network/blog/how-to-convert-erc-20-axl-to-native-axl">guide</a> to bridge your tokens.</p><h3 id="i-setting-up-your-keplr-wallet">I. Setting up your Keplr Wallet</h3><ol><li>Open the Keplr Browser Extension (available for <a href="https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/keplr/dmkamcknogkgcdfhhbddcghachkejeap">Chrome and Brave</a>) and press ‘Import Ledger’.</li></ol><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image.png" class="kg-image" alt="Create or sign in to Keplr Wallet" loading="lazy" width="384" height="455"></figure><p>2. Give the account a name, then click ‘Next’.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image-1.png" class="kg-image" alt="Keplr Account name" loading="lazy" width="384" height="455"></figure><p>3.  Select the Axelar network from the dropdown list.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image-3.png" class="kg-image" alt="Select the Axelar network" loading="lazy" width="351" height="363"></figure><h3 id="ii-staking-axl-on-the-axelar-blockchain">II. Staking AXL on the Axelar blockchain</h3><ol><li>Open the Keplr Browser Extension or go to the Keplr <a href="https://wallet.keplr.app/chains/axelar">dashboard</a> and choose the Axelar network. </li></ol><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/1-3.png" class="kg-image" alt="Keplr Dashboard" loading="lazy" width="242" height="860"></figure><p>2. Click on "Stake" in the Available Balance box.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image-16.png" class="kg-image" alt="Stake AXL" loading="lazy" width="279" height="140"></figure><p>3. Choose P2P validator from the list of available Validators.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image-13.png" class="kg-image" alt="Select P2P Validator" loading="lazy" width="1165" height="224" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2022/09/image-13.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2022/09/image-13.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image-13.png 1165w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>4. Enter the amount of AXL you want to stake and press "Delegate".</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image-14.png" class="kg-image" alt="Enter AXL amount" loading="lazy" width="679" height="667" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2022/09/image-14.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image-14.png 679w"></figure><p>5. A pop-up window will show up with the transaction. Set your preferred fee and confirm the transaction.</p><p> You are all done. Your AXL tokens are now staking and earning rewards.</p><h3 id="iii-claim-your-axelar-rewards">III. Claim your Axelar rewards</h3><ol><li>Open the Keplr Browser Extension and click ‘Claim’.</li></ol><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image-17.png" class="kg-image" alt="Claim AXL" loading="lazy" width="285" height="151"></figure><p>2. Choose your comfortable fee by hitting ‘Set Fee’ in the appropriate pop-up screen.</p><p>After claiming you can redelegate your tokens to compound your earnings.</p><hr><p><strong>About P2P Validator</strong><br><a href="https://p2p.org/"><em><em>P2P Validator</em></em></a><em><em> is a world-leading <strong><strong>non-custodial staking provider</strong></strong> with the best industry practices and proven expertise. We provide comprehensive due-diligence of digital assets and offer only high class staking opportunities securing more than 3<strong><strong> billion of USD</strong></strong> value at the time of the latest update.</em></em></p><p><em><em>P2P Validator is <strong><strong>trusted by over 24,000 delegators</strong></strong> across 25+ networks. We are a major player in all networks we support because of our experience, commitments and our <strong><strong>reputation</strong></strong>. We pay special attention to the process of governance. </em></em></p><p></p>

P2P Validator

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Cosmos How to stake Cosmos Hub (ATOM)?

<!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><p>Table of Contents</p> <ul> <li><a href="#T1"><span style=" font-size:16px"> What is Cosmos Hub (ATOM) Staking? </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T2"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Why Stake Cosmos Hub (ATOM) with P2P Validator? </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T3"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Cosmos Hub (ATOM) Staking Rewards &amp; Fees </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T4"><span style=" font-size:16px"> How to Track my Cosmos Hub (ATOM) Staking Rewards </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T5"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Cosmos Hub' (ATOM) Warm-up &amp; Reward Distribution Frequency </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T6"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Re-delegate Cosmos Hub (ATOM) </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T7"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Cosmos Hub (ATOM) Undelegation period </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T8"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Cosmos Hub (ATOM) Ledger Live Staking Guide </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T9"><span style=" font-size:16px"> imToken Comos (ATOM) Staking Guide </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T10"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Keplr + Ledger Cosmos Hub (ATOM) Staking Guide </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T11"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Cosmos Hub (ATOM) Staking FAQ </span></a></li> </ul> <h2 id="what-is-cosmos-hub-atom-staking-a-namet1a">What is Cosmos Hub (ATOM) Staking? <a name="T1"></a></h2> <p>When staking Cosmos Hub (ATOM) you are supporting the network with the additional benefit of compounding your ATOM!</p> <p>Staking ATOM is the process of holding ATOM &quot;stake&quot; to partake and support the operations in the Cosmos Hub network to receive rewards. In order to be a &quot;Validator&quot; and participate in these operations, one is required to maintain a server running continuously, technological knowhow, experience, and have a significant self-bond (surety bond).</p> <p>This is where P2P Validator comes in, we allow ATOM token holders to forget about all the heavy lifting i.e maintenance, surety bonds etc. by &quot;delegating&quot; their holdings to P2P to receive these rewards. We accumulate users' stake and act as a major validation node, receiving and allocating staking rewards between our users pro rata to the delegation.</p> <p>Users that chose to stake with P2P maintain full custody of their ATOM at all times and P2P will never have access to them.</p> <h2 id="why-stake-cosmos-hub-atom-with-p2p-validator-a-namet2a">Why Stake Cosmos Hub (ATOM) with P2P Validator? <a name="T2"></a></h2> <p>Every delegator is self-responsible for the financial decisions made. It is very important to choose the right validator in order to maximize your rewards.</p> <p>P2P Validator has been supporting the Cosmos Hub network from day one providing community building, educational materials and a solid development team. In the process, we have also set ourselves as a trusted validator for ATOM delegators.</p> <p>We have a highly skilled, dedicated and experienced team (proven by our victories at the Cosmos Hub Game of Stakes and Game of Zones) to handle the network operations involved in staking ATOM, promising the highest network reliability and performance to our delegators. We have a 100% uptime record and have never been slashed. We have a significant ATOM stake, further demonstrating the community's trust in our staking infrastructure. With consistency and a competitive fee, we promise to provide a high yield on your delegation.</p> <p>P2P Validator provides special offers for delegations over 50,000 ATOM making it one of the best places for institutional investors. You can register on our Cosmos Hub staking page or simply get in contact with us via telegram to receive these benefits.</p> <p>By staking ATOM with us you help secure the network and add more value to the Cosmos Hub ecosystem in the long run. If you have any concerns along the way you can get in touch with us anytime!</p> <h2 id="cosmos-hub-atom-staking-rewards-fees-a-namet3a">Cosmos Hub (ATOM) Staking Rewards &amp; Fees <a name="T3"></a></h2> <p>You will be earning an estimated 19% APR when staking Cosmos Hub (ATOM) with P2P. Please keep in mind that the APR specified is approximate and changes along with network conditions.</p> <p>In order to run the staking infrastructure, we charge a 8% fee on your rewards. The rewards after taking the fee into consideration will therefore be 17.48%</p> <p>Example:</p> <p>I delegate 1000 ATOM to P2P</p> <p>Reward: 1000*19% = 190 ATOM</p> <p>Fee = 190*8% = 15.2 ATOM</p> <p>Estimated balance after 1 year = 1000+190- 15.2 = 1174.8 ATOM</p> <p>By simply delegating my 1000 ATOM as I hold it, I will have supported the network and earned an additional 174.8 ATOM after 1 year. Please keep in mind that the APR specified is approximate and changes along with network conditions.</p> <h2 id="how-to-track-my-cosmos-hub-atom-staking-rewards-a-namet4a">How to Track my Cosmos Hub (ATOM) Staking Rewards <a name="T4"></a></h2> <p>Tracking Cosmos Hub (ATOM) staking rewards is really easy when using the <a href="https://wallet.keplr.app/">Keplr wallet</a>.</p> <p>On your dashboard you will be able to see the amount staked and every pending reward for each delegation you have, not only on ATOM, but for every Cosmos Hub ecosystem supported chain.</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/1-1.png" alt="Keplr dashboard"> </p> <h2 id="cosmos-hub-atom-warm-up-reward-distribution-frequency-a-namet5a">Cosmos Hub' (ATOM) Warm-up &amp; Reward Distribution Frequency <a name="T5"></a></h2> <p>Unlike most other networks, you will start receiving rewards as soon as you delegate!</p> <p>Cosmos Hub staking rewards are paid out in real-time, with rewards accruing approximately every 6 seconds. Your rewards will be distributed in a separate account from your delegation and are not compounded to your delegation. At any point you can decide to add them to your existing stake and start earning interest on them. The benefit of having your rewards paid out in a separate account is that they are not locked (you may withdraw them immediately) whereas it takes 21 days to unbond your delegated ATOM.</p> <h2 id="re-delegate-cosmos-hub-atom-a-namet6a">Re-delegate Cosmos Hub (ATOM) <a name="T6"></a></h2> <p>It is very important to choose a validator that you trust and respect. Sometimes the validator you have selected may begin to perform poorly affecting your rewards, or they change their configurations (ex: increase commissions). You may also find that you would rather support another validator that supports the ecosystem in a way that better suits your vision.</p> <p>With Cosmos Hub (ATOM), you have the option to instantly change your validator once every twenty-one days. If you partially re-delegate ATOM, you can re-delegate the remaining amount without the 21 day restraint.</p> <p>You will not lose out on any rewards while re-delegating, but you will have to pay a small transaction fee.</p> <h2 id="cosmos-hub-atom-undelegation-period-a-namet7a">Cosmos Hub (ATOM) Undelegation period <a name="T7"></a></h2> <p>If you wish to stop delegating all together, the Cosmos Hub network enforces a 21 day period for your ATOM to unbond. In that period, you will not be earning interest on your unbonding ATOM and will not be able to withdraw them.</p> <p>Be aware that you can only unbond ATOM seven times with the same validator within a twenty-one day period.</p> <h2 id="cosmos-hub-atom-ledger-live-staking-guide-a-namet8a">Cosmos Hub (ATOM) Ledger Live Staking Guide <a name="T8"></a></h2> <p>We have created a step-by-step guide to help you stake your Cosmos Hub (ATOM) using the Ledger Live application!</p> <p>How To Stake Cosmos (ATOM) with Ledger Live | P2P Validator</p> <p>Before you start, make sure that you:</p> <ul> <li>Have updated Ledger live to its latest version</li> <li>Download the latest version of the Cosmos Hub App</li> <li>Add an ATOM account. Learn more</li> <li>Add ATOM to your account</li> </ul> <p>Getting started:<br> Go to your accounts and select the one you wish to stake from.</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/2.png" alt="Select account"> </p> <p>At the bottom of the page you will see a section named &quot;nominations&quot;. Here click on the button &quot;Earn rewards&quot;:</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/3.png" alt="Nominations"> </p> <p>A new window will pop-up detailing information regarding the delegation process. After reading, press &quot;Continue&quot;:</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/4.png" alt="Earn Rewards"> </p> <p>Search for P2P validator from the list of validators. Input the amount you wish to stake and press &quot;Continue&quot;:</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/5.png" alt="Choose Validator"> </p> <p>You will be prompted to confirm the delegation on your ledger device. Please note that the Cosmos Hub APP must be open before proceeding.</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/6.png" alt="Confirm delegation"> </p> <p>You should now receive a confirmation message on your ledger live.</p> <p>That's it, your stake will activate and you'll start earning rewards immediately! Note that you will have to claim your rewards manually, which can either be added to your stake or to your available balances.</p> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="imtoken-comos-atom-staking-guide-a-namet9a">imToken Comos (ATOM) Staking Guide <a name="T9"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p></p><!--kg-card-begin: html--> <p align="center"> <iframe width="720" height="405" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/vS7YfHawhGc" title="YouTube video player" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe> </p><!--kg-card-end: html--><p></p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="keplr-ledger-cosmos-hub-atom-staking-guide-a-namet10a">Keplr + Ledger Cosmos Hub (ATOM) Staking Guide <a name="T10"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>This <a href="https://p2p.org/economy/p/d7bb9334-8989-4299-a16d-02e52d6f26b7/">tutorial</a> helps you stake and manage <a href="https://coinmarketcap.com/currencies/cosmos/">ATOM</a> tokens on the <a href="https://p2p.org/networks/cosmos">Cosmos</a> blockchain, using both the <a href="https://www.keplr.app/">Keplr</a> Browser Extension and Web Wallet together with your favorite <a href="https://www.ledger.com/">Ledger</a> device.</p><!--kg-card-begin: html--><p align="center"> <iframe width="720" height="405" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/_2uJZJ7BqYg" title="YouTube video player" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe> </p> <!--kg-card-end: html--><p></p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="cosmos-hub-atom-staking-faq-a-namet11a">Cosmos Hub (ATOM) Staking FAQ <a name="T11"></a></h2> <h3 id="what-is-cosmos-hub">What is Cosmos Hub?</h3> <p>Cosmos Hub is a decentralized network of independent, scalable, and interoperable blockchains.</p> <h3 id="what-is-the-cosmos-hub-staking-apr">What is the Cosmos Hub staking APR?</h3> <p>The Cosmos Hub staking reward is approximately 16.1%. More info here.</p> <h3 id="how-often-are-staking-rewards-distributed">How often are staking rewards distributed?</h3> <p>Cosmos Hub staking rewards are paid out in real-time, with rewards accruing approximately every 7 seconds. More info here.</p> <h3 id="is-there-an-unstaking-period">Is there an unstaking period?</h3> <p>The Cosmos Hub network has a 21 day unstaking period throughout which your tokens will not be transferable. More info here.</p> <h3 id="is-there-a-slashing-risk-for-validators">Is there a slashing risk for validators?</h3> <p>Cosmos Hub network does have slashing risk for delegators.</p> <h3 id="is-there-a-minimum-staking-amount-for-cosmos-hub">Is there a minimum staking amount for Cosmos Hub?</h3> <p>There is no minimum staking amount for staking ATOM.</p> <h3 id="do-staking-rewards-compound">Do staking rewards compound?</h3> <p>No, staking rewards must be claimed by the user manually and delegated to achieve compounding effect.</p> <h3 id="what-is-the-cosmos-hub-inflation-rate">What is the Cosmos Hub inflation rate?</h3> <p>The Cosmos Hub network inflation rate is approximately 7% per year.</p> <!--kg-card-end: markdown-->

P2P Validator

from p2p validator

Ethereum Ethereum 2.0 staking - The Beginners Guide

<!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h1 id="table-of-contents">Table of Contents</h1> <ul> <li><span style=" font-size:16px"> Ethereum 2.0 staking - The Beginners Guide </span> <ul> <li><a href="#T1"><span style=" font-size:16px"> What Is Ethereum 2.0?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T2"><span style=" font-size:16px"> What Is Ethereum 2.0 (ETH) Staking?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T3"><span style=" font-size:16px">Why Stake Ethereum for Ethereum 2.0?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T4"><span style=" font-size:16px">How Does Ethereum 2.0 (ETH) Staking Work?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T5"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Ethereum 2.0 (ETH) Staking Rewards &amp; Fees</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T6"><span style=" font-size:16px"> How Much Do You Make Staking Ethereum?</span></a> <ul> <li><a href="#T7"><span style=" font-size:16px"> When do I get my staking rewards?</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li><a href="#T8"><span style=" font-size:16px"> How do I Track My ETH 2.0 Staking Rewards?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T9"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Unstaking Period Ethereum (ETH)</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T10"><span style=" font-size:16px"> How to Stake Ethereum (ETH)?</span></a> <ul> <li><a href="#T11"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Solo Staking</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T12"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Staking as a Service</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T13"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Pooled Staking</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T14"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Centralized Exchanges</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T15"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Why Stake Ethereum with P2P?</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li><a href="#T16"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Possible Risks of Staking ETH</span></a> <ul> <li><a href="#T17"><span style=" font-size:16px"> What Will Ethereum 2.0 Value Be?</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li><a href="#T18"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Conclusion</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li><a href="#T19"><span style=" font-size:16px"> ETH 2.0 Staking FAQ</span></a> <ul> <li><a href="#T20"><span style=" font-size:16px"> What is Ethereum?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T21"><span style=" font-size:16px"> What is the Ethereum staking APR?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T22"><span style=" font-size:16px"> How often are staking rewards distributed?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T23"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Is there an unstaking period?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T24"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Is there a slashing risk for validators?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T25"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Is there a minimum staking amount for Ethereum?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T26"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Do staking rewards compound?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T27"><span style=" font-size:16px"> What is the Ethereum inflation rate?</span></a></li> </ul> </li> </ul> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>The Ethereum ecosystem has been gaining immense popularity in the last few years. This blockchain platform hosts a variety of DeFi projects and NFTs, while its native coin, ETH, remains the second largest cryptocurrency by market capitalization. Ethereum Foundation, the non-profit organization that supports this system, continuously attempts to improve the Ethereum network, making it more scalable, sustainable, and secure. </p><p>One of the most significant changes that Ethereum is undergoing now is the introduction of Ethereum 2.0, which implies a switch from the Proof-of-Work (PoW) to the Proof-of-Stake (PoS) protocol. This upgrade is aimed at solving the problem of fast-growing transaction costs (aka gas costs) and colossal energy consumption by shifting from mining to a staking mechanism. In this article, we will dive deeper into Ethereum 2.0, outline its key features, and provide you with all the important details on how to stake Ethereum (ETH).</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="what-is-ethereum-20a-namet1a">What is Ethereum 2.0?<a name="T1"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/SFTx3GHk7QKfs9OyQyk6Y8wLw6LZZPGQJpvB9Cau4pAJi_v5imj0zEDCnelYD_YSPqTbIrq8wtMTNCNcZ_pGM8H98Ka9JQd1zY_i70USWJhNTGAFpeE4nt_r4Mtn9YSRerWeULV3T4ySwdfCKcST2wA" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy"></figure><p>Ethereum 2.0 (also called Serenity or ETH2) is a number of updates planned by the Ethereum Foundation which are going to result in the ETH network moving from the PoW to PoS consensus protocol. The primary goal of this major network improvement is to solve the issues of scalability, high transaction fees, and energy consumption that have been plaguing Ethereum (ETH) since its inception. <br>The Ethereum Foundation has been working on these long-awaited upgrades for several years now. The first change happened in 2020 when the Beacon Chain was introduced. It opened the possibility of ETH staking. Another upgrade called “The Merge” is planned to occur in 2022. This step will unite ETH1 (the  execution layer) and ETH2 (the consensus layer) into one network. The total shift to the Proof-of-Stake mechanism is expected to finish in 2023 - 2024.<br></p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="what-is-ethereum-20-eth-staking-a-namet2a">What is Ethereum 2.0 (ETH) Staking? <a name="T2"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>The Proof-of-Work (PoW) consensus algorithm used by the current Ethereum ecosystem implies that miners validate transactions and add new blocks to the blockchain in exchange for rewards paid in ETH. <em>Although this approach has proven to be secure, it has some significant pitfalls. <br></em></p><ol><li><em><strong>Huge energy consumption.</strong> PoW is quite resource-intensive as it requires expensive hardware and a lot of electricity to power it. <br></em></li><li><em><strong>Ever-growing gas costs.</strong> As the network expands, the transaction fees increase. <br></em></li><li><em><strong>Limited scalability. </strong>The current Ethereum network can only process around 15 transactions per second.</em></li></ol><p><br>These issues can be resolved as soon as the Proof-of-Stake mechanism comes out. PoS is a much more efficient and eco-friendly way of validating transactions and adding new blocks to the blockchain. In this approach, instead of mining, there is a staking process in which users stake their Ethereum to validate transactions and earn rewards. As there is no need for expensive hardware or enormous amounts of electricity, PoS is much cheaper and more sustainable than PoW. <em>Moreover, as stakers can validate transactions much faster, Ethereum’s scalability will also improve.</em></p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="why-stake-ethereum-for-ethereum-20-a-namet3a">Why stake Ethereum for Ethereum 2.0? <a name="T3"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>Every ETH holder might wonder why it’s worth staking. Let’s consider the core reasons.</p><ol><li><strong>Extra income.</strong> Staking is a great way to earn passive returns. As long as you keep your ETH staked, you will continue to receive a percentage of rewards.</li><li><strong>Ethereum network development.</strong> This is one of the ways to support the Ethereum ecosystem and its shifting to the PoS consensus algorithm. If you stake your ETH, you help to secure the network and make it more scalable.</li><li><strong>Sustainability.</strong> Staking is eco-friendly. Unlike mining, it doesn’t require heavy energy consumption.</li><li><strong>Easy to start.</strong> Anyone with a computer can become a staker. It’s not necessary to have expensive hardware or much capital to get started.</li></ol><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="how-does-ethereum-20-eth-staking-work-a-namet4a">How does Ethereum 2.0 (ETH) Staking work? <a name="T4"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>ETH staking implies adding new blocks to the Ethereum blockchain. A user must deposit 32 ETH to become a full validator who is responsible for processing transactions, storing data, and adding blocks. The reward is earned for correctly validated transactions. If a validator submits fraudulent transactions or breaks the network rules, they are punished with a process known as slashing, which means that they could lose part of their investment and be kicked out of the ETH ecosystem.</p><p>There are some alternative ways to participate in staking. If a user doesn’t want to get into the details of this reward-earning approach or deal with hardware, they could make use of staking-as-a-service. For users who are limited in capital, there is an option of pooled staking. However, it’s crucial to remember that these techniques come with certain risks, especially related to the counterparty.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="ethereum-20-eth-staking-rewards-fees-a-namet5a">Ethereum 2.0 (ETH) Staking Rewards &amp; Fees <a name="T5"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>In staking, the amount of the reward is variable. It depends on factors such as the total amount of ETH staked, the length of time it is staked for, and the overall inflation rate. For example, if you stake your ETH for a shorter period, you will receive less reward than if you stake it for a longer time. However, as long as you keep your ETH staked, you will continue to receive rewards regularly. Most commonly, users who stake their ETH take a reward of about 8% Annual Percentage Rate (APR). This means that if you stake 1 Ethereum, you will have 1.08 ETH at the end of the year.<br>When it comes to the fees, everything depends on the platform the staker is using. The amount can greatly vary. For example, Lido takes 10% for ETH staking, Coinbase has a 25% fee, while <a href="https://p2p.org/networks/ethereum">P2P</a> charges a 10% fee.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="how-much-do-you-make-staking-ethereum-a-namet6a">How Much Do You Make Staking Ethereum? <a name="T6"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>As previously mentioned, the amount of money that can be earned from staking Ethereum can vary depending on several factors. The size of the reward is impacted by the amount of ETH that is being staked - the more ETH, the higher the potential reward. Another important factor to take into account is the time the Ethereum is being staked for - a longer period will typically result in more significant profits. In addition, it is also important to consider the current interest rate on Ethereum. The higher it is, the more money can be earned from staking this cryptocurrency. Currently, the average reward from ETH staking fluctuates between 3% - 8% paid annually.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h3 id="when-do-i-get-my-staking-rewards-a-namet7a">When do I get my staking rewards? <a name="T7"></a></h3> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>An Ethereum staker gets a reward after each epoch, which usually lasts 6.5 minutes on average. However, it’s important to note that the user should be active during this time to receive it, meaning that they should be online and validating.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="how-do-i-track-my-eth-20-staking-rewards-a-namet8a">How Do I Track My ETH 2.0 Staking Rewards? <a name="T8"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>To track Ethereum staking rewards, the user needs to find their staking address. It’s possible to do it in two ways:</p><ul><li>Find it via transaction history in the blockchain explorer (a tool that allows users to view information about a particular blockchain).<br></li><li>Get the staking address from the wallet and then insert it in the blockchain explorer to find the related information.</li></ul><p>Overall, the process of tracking your ETH 2.0 staking rewards is relatively simple and can be done using either a blockchain explorer or one of the multiple tools that help to track rewards.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="unstaking-period-for-ethereum-eth-a-namet9a">Unstaking period for Ethereum (ETH) <a name="T9"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>The unstaking or undelegation period is the time users must wait to withdraw their ETH if they want to stop staking. This period is required to ensure that all the rewards that have been earned are properly distributed. <br><br>On Ethereum, it is currently not possible to unstake your assets, once they are staked. Withdrawal of staked assets will be enabled in 2023 with the Shanghai upgrade. The unstaking period is variable and depends on how much ETH is queued to be unstaked at the time.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="how-to-stake-ethereum-a-namet10a">How to stake Ethereum? <a name="T10"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>There are a few different ways a user can stake Ethereum. Let’s have a look at them.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h3 id="solo-staking-a-namet11a">Solo staking <a name="T11"></a></h3> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>Solo staking means that users stake their ETH and do not pool it with others. This approach comes with the maximum reward since it is not shared with other users. For this type of staking, it’s necessary to invest 32 ETH and have a robust computer with a constant internet connection.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h3 id="staking-as-a-service-a-namet12a">Staking as a service <a name="T12"></a></h3> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>This is an easier way for users to participate in staking without having to set up their own validators or run any special software. Instead, they simply deposit their ETH into the provider's smart contract. This model allows for earning rewards without having to bear the full costs and risks of running a validator node. Although Ethereum staking service providers typically charge a small fee, this is often offset by the higher rewards that they offer.</p><p>Staking as a service exists in three forms: custodial, semi-custodial, and non-custodial.<br></p><ul><li><strong>Custodial service providers</strong> completely manage the staking process. They own the users’ validator and withdrawal keys.</li><li><strong>Semi-custodial service providers</strong> don’t hold users’ withdrawal keys, and thus don’t have access to the customer funds, but they do hold users' validator keys.</li><li><strong>Non-custodial service providers</strong> allow users to earn interest on their Ethereum holdings without having to give up control of their private keys.<br></li></ul><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h3 id="pooled-staking-a-namet13a">Pooled Staking <a name="T13"></a></h3> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>Pooled staking is when users pool their Ethereum together to have a better chance of validating blocks and earning rewards. This is a great way for users to earn rewards without having to stake 32 ETH. However, it’s crucial to remember that it’s not a native staking method, and thus it comes with increased third-party risks.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h3 id="centralized-exchanges-a-namet14a">Centralized Exchanges <a name="T14"></a></h3> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>This staking method has gained particular popularity among ETH holders. A centralized exchange is a suitable choice for users who don’t feel comfortable holding Ethereum in their wallets and managing their keys. Although centralized exchanges typically offer higher rewards than other methods of staking, they also come with the risk of losing ETH if the exchange is hacked or becomes insolvent.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h3 id="why-stake-ethereum-with-p2p-a-namet15a">Why stake Ethereum with P2P? <a name="T15"></a></h3> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p><a href="https://p2p.org/networks/ethereum">P2P</a> provides non-custodial services for Ethereum (ETH) staking. As previously mentioned, this means that users keep full control of their assets and the platform doesn’t have access to their private keys. </p><p><a href="https://p2p.org/">P2P</a> is a cutting-edge solution that provides its customers with top-notch security, transparency, and strong community support. When it comes to ETH staking rewards and fees, after The Merge, it offers its users a ~8% APR and charges a 10% validator fee. By staking before The Merge, a 0.1 ETH flat fee is charged for every 32 ETH.</p><p>New and existing clients can benefit from a 0% validator fee per quarter when staking more than 320 ETH.<br>P2P is one of the leading Node Operators at LIDO, running thousands of nodes for almost 2 years. By opting for this ETH staking solution, users receive high-quality service and 24/7 expert account monitoring and support.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="possible-risks-of-staking-eth-a-namet16a">Possible risks of staking ETH <a name="T16"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/yboZPMkuwLYbqf0ogKAcgMLlQMbdiWl3y1A9VodxcUbzSvlxLMzwm247h7hwtclbKy8sSqlyjlilukqMcr-f-fs97vBjqoU6ZSijj6cUtQQfkqhyuNXtb9fcMaExSJqjp8lcqZgpyrOwX-aHiv2mqcI" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy"></figure><p>If you decide to stake your ETH, it’s important to be aware of the risks related to this approach. Let’s have a look at the most significant ones:<br></p><ol><li><strong>Unclear price of ETH 2.0.</strong> The value of Ethereum 2.0 will undoubtedly differ from the current Ethereum price. If it goes down, you will still earn rewards for staking, but the overall value of your investment will decrease. However, if Ethereum 2.0 turns out to be successful, its value is likely to increase along with your potential rewards.<br></li><li><strong>Unstaking.</strong> Users will not be able to withdraw their staked Ethereum by the time Ethereum 2.0 is completely released. This could take a couple of years. Currently, the Ethereum Foundation has scheduled the terminal stage for 2023-2024.<br></li><li><strong>Slashing.</strong> This is the risk of losing some funds. Slashing is a penalty imposed on stakers who fail to comply with the network rules or validate fraudulent transactions.<br></li><li><strong>Private key loss.</strong> If a user loses their private keys, they will not be able to access their ETH, and thus will not be able to earn rewards.<br></li></ol><p>While all these risks are possible, they are also relatively unlikely if you are well aware of the features and limitations of this approach.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h3 id="what-will-ethereum-20-value-be-a-namet17a">What will Ethereum 2.0 Value Be? <a name="T17"></a></h3> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>Different crypto experts have various expectations about the Ethereum price in the short- and long-term perspective. However, the majority of them agree that the improvements related to Ethereum 2.0 will push this crypto to enter a bullish market. </p><p><a href="https://coinpedia.org/information/market-price-prediction-ethereum-2019/">Coinpedia</a> expects Ethereum to be traded at about $5,000 at the end of 2023. Moreover, if the ETH 2.0 release turns out to be successful, the value of this crypto could hit a maximum of around $11,000 in 2025.<br><br><a href="https://coinpriceforecast.com/ethereum-forecast-2020-2025-2030">Coin Price forecast</a> also has a positive forecast for the Ethereum price. However, it’s more reserved. This platform believes that ETH will reach the level of about $2,200 by the end of 2022 and will continue growing, approaching $2,800 in 2025.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="conclusion-a-namet18a">Conclusion <a name="T18"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>Ethereum staking could be a great way of gaining extra income. Moreover, this process, in contrast to mining, comes with significantly improved scalability, security, and sustainability. However, before making any decision, it’s crucial to be aware of the risks involved. One of the main issues to take into account is that users will not able to withdraw their staked Ethereum by the time Ethereum 2.0 is completely released.<br><br>If you decide that the advantages of this approach outweigh its potential risks, you need to choose among the several possible ways to stake Ethereum and commence your journey.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h1 id="eth-20-staking-faq-a-namet19a">ETH 2.0 Staking FAQ <a name="T19"></a></h1> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="what-is-ethereuma-namet20a">What is Ethereum?<a name="T20"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>Ethereum is a decentralized, open-source blockchain featuring smart contract functionality. Its native token, ETH, is the second largest crypto by market cap after Bitcoin. Ethereum is a unique platform that serves as a home for many decentralized applications and NFTs. Currently, the network is undergoing some significant changes which will result in shifting from a Proof-of-Work to a Proof-of-Stake mechanism.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="what-is-the-ethereum-staking-apr-a-namet21a">What is the Ethereum staking APR? <a name="T21"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>In Ethereum staking, the reward may vary depending on the amount of ETH invested, the time it is staked for, the inflation rate, and more. However, the average Ethereum staking yield is about 5.4%.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="how-often-are-staking-rewards-distributed-a-namet22a">How often are staking rewards distributed? <a name="T22"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>Ethereum staking rewards are distributed by stakers every 24 hours. The amount of the rewards depends on the number of ETH tokens staked, the time they are staked for, inflation, and more. However, typically it is around 4% per year.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="is-there-an-unstaking-period-a-namet23a">Is there an unstaking period? <a name="T23"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>Unstaking Ethereum or any other crypto means taking these coins out of the staking pool. There is no unstaking period in the Ethereum network, and your tokens will be transferable immediately upon unstaking. Note that once you have unstaked your coins, they are no longer eligible for staking rewards.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="is-there-a-slashing-risk-for-validators-a-namet24a">Is there a slashing risk for validators? <a name="T24"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>Yes, there is such a risk. Slashing is a type of punishment imposed on users who don’t comply with network regulations or submit fraudulent transactions. This could result in a user losing some of their funds or even being kicked out of the network.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="is-there-a-minimum-staking-amount-for-ethereum-a-namet25a">Is there a minimum staking amount for Ethereum? <a name="T25"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>In general, there is no minimum amount to stake Ethereum. However, there could be some minimum requirements set by individual staking pools. P2P users don’t have to provide any minimum ETH staking amount.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="do-staking-rewards-compound-a-namet26a">Do staking rewards compound? <a name="T26"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>No, Ethereum staking rewards don't compound; most smart contracts do not allow for compounding rewards. This means that users cannot gain interest on their interest.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="what-is-the-ethereum-inflation-rate-a-namet27a">What is the Ethereum inflation rate? <a name="T27"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>The annual Ethereum supply is limited to 18,000,000. This means that its inflation rate has to decrease each year. As a result, in 2022, Ethereum inflation dropped from 1.10% to 0.51% during the first quarter.</p><p></p><p></p>

P2P Validator

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Kusama, Moonbeam Postmortem: Moonbeam Collator Incident (September 4 2022)

<p></p><h3 id="summary">Summary </h3><p>On September 4 at 15:15 UTC one of our collators stopped syncing and due to an error in the monitoring rules the incident went unnoticed. As a result of this the collator did not produce blocks for a period of 27 hours.</p><h3 id="what-happened">What Happened?</h3><p>An error was made in one of the many rules of our monitoring system. When writing this rule, we mistakenly used the wrong metric to determine the status of the collator in the candidate list. As a result, when the collator stopped synchronizing, the engineering team did not receive any notifications about the incident.</p><h3 id="customer-impact">Customer Impact</h3><p>Delegators who nominated and had their staked allocated to this collator did not receive rewards for a period of 4 rounds.</p><h3 id="what-went-wrong">What went wrong?</h3><p>Unfortunately, we received information about the incident from an external source, which is unacceptable.</p><h3 id="what-went-well">What went well?</h3><p>After receiving information about the incident, the failed collator was promptly restored as soon as possible and began to produce blocks.</p><h3 id="lessons-learnt-and-action-plan">Lessons learnt and action plan</h3><p>We are going to implement strict checks and audits of all our monitoring rules. We are also in the process of automating testing of monitoring rules as much as possible before applying them to the production environment.</p><p><br>P2P takes full responsibility for the event that led to the weak performance and we are sorry for the inconvenience. Please be assured that we are taking actions to eliminate even a small probability of such an event occurring in the future.</p><hr><p><strong><strong><strong>About P2P Validator</strong></strong></strong></p><p><a href="https://p2p.org/">P2P Validator</a> is a world-leading staking provider with the best industry security  practices and proven expertise. We provide comprehensive due-diligence of digital assets and offer only high class staking opportunities. At the time of the latest update, more than 1.5 billion USD value is staked with P2P Validator by over 25,000 delegators across 40+ networks.</p><p><em><em>If you have any questions, feel free to join our<a href="https://t.me/P2Pstaking"> Telegram chat</a>, we are always open for communication.</em></em></p><p><br></p><p> </p>

P2P Validator

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Cardano What to look for when choosing a Cardano pool?

<h3></h3><p>At first, Cardano might appear to have a complicated staking system, but in reality it's quite simple. In this article we will begin by outlining Cardano’s staking architecture before moving on to the key factors about validator pools that will affect your Return-on-Assets (ROA). By the end of this article, you will be able to confidently select a validator pool that is the right fit for you. <br></p><h2 id="staking-architecture">Staking Architecture</h2><p>To get a better understanding of the whole staking architecture, let's first start with how rewards are generated. Within each epoch, fees from network operations and new emissions are collected into a fund. Part of these collected assets goes to the Cardano treasury, while the rest is distributed to validators and delegators as a reward for their commitment to securing the network through staking. <br><br>The validator's role is to secure the network. They are responsible for confirming the validity of new blocks of transactions which are then added to the network's ledger. Every time a new block is added to the ledger, validators are rewarded with staking rewards. </p><p>Cardano token holders can earn staking rewards by delegating their ADA assets to one of the many available validator pools. By delegating your ADA to a validator pool, you are providing this validator with your tokens rights to participate in the validation of blocks. Validators will redistribute their earnings to their delegators pro rata to their stake. </p><p>A validator's probability to be allocated a block to produce, depends on a number of factors. <strong>Pool saturation, </strong>which refers to how much stake a particular pool has,<strong> </strong>is the most important factor when it comes to allocation of new blocks. The higher the pool saturation, the higher is the amount staked in the pool. The greater a pool's stake is, the more blocks will be allocated to them. If the pool does not have enough stake to be allocated a new block, it can take as long as 5 or 50 epochs before they will produce a block. <br><br>So what factors are important to take into consideration when selecting the right validator pool? Below we explain the several key factors to take into account.</p><h2 id="important-factors-when-selecting-a-validator-pool"><br>Important factors when selecting a validator pool<br></h2><h3 id="pool-saturation">Pool saturation </h3><p>The Cardano staking architecture was created in a way that pool saturation does not have a significant effect on ROA in the long run. <br><br>Pools with larger stakes will have more blocks allocated to them and therefore will generate more rewards, but they will also have to distribute it amongst more delegated stake. Smaller pools will produce blocks less often, but will generate a high return to their delegators when they do. <br><br>One has to consider their strategy when deciding which pool to select: Whether they would rather choose a pool with high saturation that will produce more blocks and distribute rewards more evenly and frequently, or choose a less saturated pool that will produce fewer blocks but distribute greater rewards when it does. </p><p>However, in order to promote decentralisation, the Cardano protocol has a cap on the amount of rewards a validator's pool can receive. Therefore, if a pool is <em><strong>oversaturated</strong></em>, the rewards received for producing blocks will have to distribute between all the ADA that was delegated to that pool. This leads to lower rewards per each ADA delegation. The current oversaturation limit is 64 million ADA.</p><h3 id="pool-fees-margin"><br>Pool Fees (Margin)</h3><p>Validators may charge a fee (margin) for maintaining its pools, keeping a percentage of all rewards received. The usual margin for public pools is between 1 and 3%, which has a very low impact on rewards. For example, even if you stake 1 million ADA on nodes with 0% and 1% commission (let’s take average nodes with 50% saturation), the difference in rewards between them will be about 5-10 ADA per epoch. <br><br>Do note that validators can set the fee up to 100%, so it is important to check that the commission is not set too high.</p><h3 id="pledge">Pledge</h3><p>A pledge is an amount of assets self-bonded by the validator intended to remain staked to its pool for as long as it operates. It can affect ROA, but only very slightly. Below we will take a look at an example.</p><p>As an illustration, let's look at the change in the possible ROA depending on the pool parameters:</p><p>Let's imagine we have three pools, each with a saturation of 30 million ADA. Each of them has the following pledge values:</p><p>Pool 1 - 10,000 ADA, </p><p>Pool 2 - 100,000 ADA  </p><p>Pool 3 - 1,000,000 ADA</p><p>If you were to stake 10 million ADA, you would get the following ROA on each pool:</p><p>Pool 1 - 3.958%</p><p>Pool 2 - 3.960%</p><p>Pool 3 - 3.982%<br></p><p>As we can see, although there is a difference, it is not significant.<br></p><h3 id="luck">Luck </h3><p>Luck reflects the protocol randomness in the allocation of blocks. When a pool gets allocated more blocks to generate than expected, the luck metric is greater than 100%. If a pool gets allocated less blocks than it would be expected then that number is less than 100%.</p><p>Pools experience this metric every epoch regardless of their size and it is completely random, so smaller pools will see swings between 0% and 100% during long streaks, whereas larger pools will see higher returns in the same period. Over a long enough period of time, the expected APY on rewards will average towards the network expected value.</p><p>It's important to keep in mind that block allocation is calculated on the basis of statistics. If a pool has gotten more than it's expected share of blocks in the past, future block allocations will be lower and vice-versa. </p><h2 id="reliability-and-reputation">Reliability and Reputation</h2><p>Since Pool Saturation, Pledge and Luck do not have a significant impact on ROA in the long run on pools with similar fees, the main consideration a delegator needs to have when selecting a validator pool is the validator’s reliability. In case of failures, errors, etc., no blocks will be created and consequently no participant will receive any reward. So when choosing a pool, this decision should be made responsibly to be sure that the infrastructure is maintained without failures. You can analyse validators' historical performances on <a href="https://adapools.org/">explorers.</a></p><p><br>Let's take an example with one of P2P’s pools. Using the following <a href="https://adapools.org/pool/c29c92f8319150962650bc8a5e24d918491e8a7b3ac43525afe76baa">link</a> to the explorer, you can verify the performance and configurations of P2P. You can see that the saturation is less than half, it has a margin of 0%, a pledge of 1M ADA and it has a ROA of around 4-5%.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/LpTAxAlKIXJyY-JI_abbpO_Ryo6M6V7qFNqtWhm8R38oGMdFWGWaECyyyAda8xus17qRz2gNsNFqWd3DnSb7RVFYJD9BqKLIwHsnMWlb-wpaKGcn5E8sEd0_DsCA-QfkeEOSQ2siZnDtTORjzn53FXsCYIPyXN0XJTHeWRf0aep6JQhPG4p2m2QmfQ" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy"></figure><p>Delegating to a public node is not the only way to stake. Many experienced validators, including P2P, provide the option to maintain a whitelabel node for large token holders. Essentially, a team would be responsible for maintaining the node, but it would be managed and owned by the token holder. In other words, a DevOps team would solve all the technical issues, whereas the owner would control the margin, marketing, etc. </p><h2 id="takeaways">Takeaways</h2><p>The Cardano staking architecture was designed in a way to provide all well performing staking pools with similar profitability opportunities, regardless of the size of their stake. Therefore, when selecting a public node, the most important consideration is the fee, the stability and reliability of the validator. Validators with low up time, or in cases where technical failures occur, may miss blocks and as a result delegators will lose out on potential rewards.<br></p><hr><h3 id="about-p2p-validator"><strong>About P2P Validator</strong></h3><p><a href="https://p2p.org/">P2P Validator</a> is a world-leading staking provider with the best industry security  practices and proven expertise. We provide comprehensive due-diligence of digital assets and offer only high class staking opportunities. At the time of the latest update, more than 1.5 billion USD value is staked with P2P Validator by over 25,000 delegators across 40+ networks.</p><p><em>If you have any questions, feel free to join our<a href="https://t.me/P2Pstaking"> Telegram chat</a>, we are always open for communication.</em></p>

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Polkadot P2P Raises Fee at Polkadot while Continuing to increase sustainability

<h1></h1><p>P2P Validator has been supporting the Polkadot network from day one, <strong>providing high-quality validation services</strong> for DOT nominators. Our <strong>developed products allow nominators</strong> to easily manage investments and receive a detailed report on their staking income.</p><p><strong>We invest in the development of the Polkadot network</strong> and see long-term prospects, however, the costs of maintaining the infrastructure and product development are  higher than the revenues that the validator currently receives. We have decided to <strong>set a commission of 1% starting from 5 September 2022</strong> to remain flexible and provide more sustainable services.</p><h2 id="what-have-we-done"><strong>What have we done?</strong></h2><p>We <strong>did not stop the development activity</strong> in the Polkadot network and put in more than eight months of hard work for a reduced fee. Here is a list of the <strong>most significant achievements</strong> that we have released for the Polkadot ecosystem:</p><ol><li><a href="https://p2p.org/snapshot/polkadot">Snapshot service </a>for everyone who is running their own validators.</li><li><a href="https://github.com/p2p-org/substrate_node">Substrate node</a>. Compact set of terraform and ansible roles for deploying substrate-based node</li><li>Received and released a grant from WEB3 Foundation for a Multi Blockchain ETL solution for blockchains with an API for the collected data. We proceed to support the infrastructure for the MBELT, spending thousands of dollars every month.</li><li>Five articles and users guides posted.</li><li><a href="https://reports.p2p.org/superset/dashboard/polkadot_sample_report/?native_filters_key=UDDVi9IA6qtvjLQ1Kdg1lZ0LK4ZYcpf5oOs_UlOMnt7mBS7cc76QJ-Vw_5uBnPYT">P2P Dashboard</a> for Polkadot users:</li></ol><ul><li>Track and analyse nominator rewards</li><li>Different strategies performance overview</li><li>CSV reward report</li></ul><p>Product development inside the ecosystem is an essential element not only to support the Polkadot network but also as a part of the <strong>long-term growth of the community and the network value.</strong></p><h2 id="when-will-the-commission-be-increased"><strong>When will the commission be increased?</strong></h2><p>We will increase the commission to 1% starting September 5, 2022. There is a lot of work ahead, and we believe that <strong>joint efforts will accelerate the evolution of the Polkadot network.</strong></p><p>We want to <strong>thank all our nominators</strong> for their continuous support and for being with us!</p><p><strong>Special offer for <strong>20</strong>,<strong>000+</strong> DOT holders</strong></p><p>If you stake 20,000+ DOT, you can benefit from staking with P2P rebalancing service. Our optimized staking strategy provides up to 20% higher rewards than the network average. Our clients currently benefit from a 15% APR vs 13.8% net</p><p><strong>P2P plans of further developments</strong></p><p>While staying a reliable and affordable validator, P2P team plans to design and release block finalization community exporter to share our findings in tracking validator performance. We are committed to success of the Polkadot Network in the long term and hope that you can embark on this journey with us.</p><p>If you would like to know more about our offer for Polkadot please visit: <a href="https://p2p.org/networks/polkadot">https://p2p.org/networks/polkadot</a><br><br>If you have any questions, feel free to join our<a href="https://t.me/P2Pstaking"> Telegram chat</a>, we are always open for communication.</p><hr><h2 id="about-p2p-validator"><strong>About P2P Validator</strong></h2><p><a href="https://p2p.org/">P2P Validator</a> is a world-leading staking provider with the best industry security  practices and proven expertise. We provide comprehensive due-diligence of digital assets and offer only high class staking opportunities. At the time of the latest update, more than 1.5 billion USD value is staked with P2P Validator by over 25,000 delegators across 40+ networks.</p>

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Ethereum Ethereum 2.0 FAQ

<p>If you are looking for information about The Merge we've got you covered. Below you can find answers to the most common questions about the upcoming Ethereum upgrade. </p><p></p><h3 id="what-is-ethereum-20">What is Ethereum 2.0?</h3><p>Ethereum 2.0 (ETH2) is a set of upgrades that looks to make Ethereum more scalable, secure and sustainable.</p><h3 id="will-ethereum-be-renamed-after-the-merge">Will Ethereum be renamed after The Merge?</h3><p>No, Ethereum will still be Ethereum and no new cryptocurrencies will be created. The ticker for the Ethereum token will remain the same, ETH.</p><p>This misconception comes from the fact that for a time ETH on the mainnet was referred to as ETH1 and ETH on the Beacon Chain was referred to as ETH2. After The Merge however only ETH will exist.</p><h3 id="what-are-the-major-differences-between-current-ethereum-and-ethereum-20">What are the major differences between current Ethereum and Ethereum 2.0?</h3><p>There are two big changes happening with the introduction of ETH2.</p><p>The first one will be a shift from Proof of work (PoW) to Proof of Stake (PoS). The second one will be the introduction of shard chains. </p><h3 id="what-is-the-difference-between-proof-of-work-pow-and-proof-of-stake-pos">What is the difference between Proof of Work (PoW) and Proof of Stake (PoS)?</h3><p>PoW is a consensus mechanism that relies on computational power and the expenditure of energy to validate transactions on a blockchain. In PoS validators use capital to validate transactions. This not only helps alleviate environmental concerns associated with PoW but also improves security and scalability.</p><h3 id="when-will-eth2-launch">When will ETH2 launch?</h3><p>The ETH2 launch will be segmented into phases. </p><p>The first phase occurred in December 2020 with the launch of the <strong>Beacon Chain</strong>. The launch of the Beacon Chain marked an important milestone in the road to ETH2, introducing PoS to Ethereum.</p><p>The next phase is called <strong>The Merge</strong> and it is scheduled to happen on September 19, 2022. The Merge represents the fusion of the current Ethereum mainnet with the Beacon Chain. This update will replace the current Proof of Work consensus mechanism with Proof of Stake.</p><p><strong>Shard chains</strong> are a scalability mechanism through which the blockchain is divided among many different nodes thus allowing transactions to be processed in parallel instead of consecutively. This helps drastically improve the network amount of transactions per second. This upgrade is currently expected to launch somewhere in 2023 following The Merge. There has been no confirmed date yet but be on the lookout for announcements.</p><h3 id="what-will-happen-to-my-ethereum">What will happen to my Ethereum?</h3><p>You won’t need to do anything with your Ethereum. The Merge was set up to be a seamless transition for the average user.</p><h3 id="what-is-ethereum-expected-staking-apr-after-the-merge">What is Ethereum expected staking APR after The Merge?</h3><p>The current APR before The Merge is around 4%. After The Merge the best estimates place the APR between the range of 7-11%. </p><p>You can find a more comprehensive answer to this question <a href="https://blog.lido.fi/modelling-the-entry-queue-post-merge-an-analysis-of-impacts-on-lidos-socialized-model/">here</a>.</p><h3 id="will-there-be-a-proof-of-work-fork-of-ethereum-after-the-merge-can-i-get-tokens-on-the-new-chain-if-i-stake-them">Will there be a Proof-of-Work fork of Ethereum after The merge? Can I get tokens on the new chain if I stake them?</h3><p>Yes, there most likely will be a fork of Ethereum after The Merge. Staked Ethereum will probably also not be counted towards getting new tokens in the forked chain.</p><p>There are pros in choosing to stake early rather than wait for the fork. As more ETH gets staked the less rewards are available for each validator. Due to the expected increase in staking APR post-merge one can capture this yield by staking early.</p><p>By waiting to stake one can also risk being caught up in the staking queue that can form if a large number of validators are trying to be created at the same time. This can push the current waiting period to start earning rewards, which currently goes up to 7 days, to a 2 to 4 months waiting period. </p><p>The calculation being made here is between the profit earned from the tokens on the new chain versus the loss of staking rewards for 2 to 4 months.</p><h3 id="what-is-the-minimum-amount-of-eth-i-can-stake">What is the minimum amount of ETH I can stake?</h3><p>You don’t need any Ethereum to run a node. However to validate blocks and earn staking rewards you need to stake at least 32 ETH.</p><p>Running a non-block-producing node is still incentivized since it improves network security.</p><h3 id="how-often-are-staking-rewards-distributed">How often are staking rewards distributed? </h3><p>Withdrawals from the Beacon Chain are not enabled so rewards are not being distributed just yet. You can still earn rewards however. </p><h3 id="will-i-be-able-to-earn-mev-rewards-from-staking">Will I be able to earn MEV rewards from staking?</h3><p>Yes, our APR estimates include MEV rewards.</p><h3 id="is-there-a-slashing-risk-for-validators">Is there a slashing risk for Validators?</h3><p>Yes, there is slashing risk to prevent malicious actions on the network.</p><h3 id="do-staking-rewards-compound">Do staking rewards compound?</h3><p>No, staking rewards do not compound because withdrawals from the Beacon Chain will not be enabled just yet.</p><h3 id="will-the-network-experience-any-downtime-during-the-merge">Will the network experience any downtime during The Merge?</h3><p>No, the network will not experience any downtime. The upgrade was designed to cause no disruption to the network.</p><h3 id="will-the-gas-fees-reduce-after-the-merge">Will the gas fees reduce after The Merge?</h3><p>No, The Merge changes the consensus mechanism from PoW to PoS. Gas fees are dictated by the network usage, future updates will look to address gas fees.</p><h3 id="will-transactions-be-faster-after-the-merge">Will transactions be faster after The Merge?</h3><p>It’s very unlikely. The Merge focus is not on scalability, future upgrades to the network will focus on scalability.<br></p><p>If you are interested in staking Ethereum with P2P, please email us at <a href="mailto:[email protected]" rel="noopener noreferrer">[email protected]</a>.</p><hr><p>About P2P Validator</p><p><a href="https://p2p.org/">P2P Validator</a> is a world-leading staking provider with the best industry security  practices and proven expertise. We provide comprehensive due-diligence  of digital assets and offer only high class staking opportunities. At the time of the latest update, <strong><strong><strong><strong>more than </strong></strong>2.9<strong><strong> billion of USD value is staked with P2P Validator by over 2</strong></strong>5<strong><strong>,000 delegators across 25+ networks.</strong></strong></strong></strong></p><p>Want to stake Ethereum with us? Visit <a href="https://p2p.org/networks/ethereum">p2p.org/networks/ethereum</a>  to find out more about Ethereum staking.</p><p>If you have any questions, feel free to join our<a href="https://t.me/P2Pstaking"> Telegram chat</a>, we are always open for communication.</p>

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Cosmos Introducing Neutron

<h3 id="p2p-is-building-neutron-a-permission-less-zone-featuring-cosmwasm-and-full-ibc-capability-including-interchain-accounts-and-queries-to-host-the-interchain%E2%80%99s-infrastructure-and-defi-protocols-neutron-is-proposed-to-launch-as-a-consumer-chain-secured-by-the-cosmos-hub">P2P is building Neutron, a permission-less zone featuring CosmWasm and full IBC capability (including Interchain Accounts and Queries) to host the Interchain’s infrastructure and DeFi protocols. Neutron is proposed to launch as a Consumer-Chain secured by the Cosmos Hub.</h3><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><p> </p> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>The vision of an ecosystem of the sovereign, interconnected blockchains is coming to life. As the technology underpinning Cosmos matures, adoption is picking up: a recent example, dYdX, a major Ethereum Perp-Trading protocol, announced it was moving to a custom App-Chain to provide better order book trading services to its users.</p><p>Not all protocols need the same degree of customization as dYdX does, though, and most would rather avoid the overhead associated with the construction of a generic zone. For these protocols, there needs to be a secure, well-connected CosmWasm hub where to deploy.</p><p>Currently, such a zone does not exist: no chain is as secure as the Cosmos Hub, and Proposal 69 showed the community’s preference for virtual machines to be released on Consumer-Chains, rather than the Hub itself.</p><p>Today, we are proud to announce we are making the Cosmonauts’ vision a reality: Introducing Neutron, a permission-less, Interchain-Secured CosmWasm smart-contracting environment for the Interchain.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><p> </p> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><h3 id="what-is-neutron">What is Neutron?</h3><p>Neutron is designed to be the premier venue for Interchain Smart-Contract deployment:</p><p>Built with the Cosmos SDK, Neutron features native support for CosmWasm, a virtual machine that allows smart contracts written in Rust, AssemblyScript and other coding languages to run on Cosmos blockchains. The resulting smart-contracts have significant benefits over the release of code into an Appchain’s binary: they benefit from a large library of testing tools, are easier to deploy and upgrade, and can be audited more efficiently.</p><p>To protect its ecosystem from the get go, Neutron would be secured by 175 validators and roughly 186M staked ATOM, worth $1.5Bn at the time of writing. This is made possible by a technology called Interchain Security, which lets validators from a Provider-Chain (e.g. the Cosmos Hub) produce blocks for a Consumer-Chain (e.g. Neutron). Node operators are rewarded with additional native tokens, but can be sanctioned if they fail to validate the Consumer-Chain. In a nutshell, Interchain Security would provide Neutron with the same degree of security as the Cosmos Hub, the 10th largest blockchain by value staked.</p><p>Neutron is Interchain-oriented: it supports the Inter-Blockchain Communication protocol (IBC), Interchain Accounts (ICA), as well as Interchain Queries (ICQ), at launch. Initially, Interchain Queries will be provided by a custom implementation developed by P2P, and upgraded to the official release once it is available. This allows any protocol deploying on Neutron to effortlessly communicate with the rest of IBC, and enables complex operations such as interchain liquid staking or cross-chain collateralization.</p><p>Last but not least, Neutron is permission-less: it is an open platform where anyone can deploy code to join the Interchain’s economy. Neutron is a neutral foundation on which anything can be built. It does not presume the worth of a project, and does not favor the interests of a protocol over that of another. Neutron is a public-good, owned by the community, by its users.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><p> </p> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><h3 id="what-is-p2p">What is P2P?</h3><p><a href="https://p2p.org/">P2P</a> is a professional validator and a non-custodial staking provider which secures more than $1.5Bn in assets across the industry.</p><p>A long-term contributor to the Cosmos ecosystem, P2P has been securing the Cosmos Hub since genesis. It participated in the ATOM fundraiser and regularly open-sources its tooling.</p><p>At P2P, we have a strong conviction in the Interchain’s vision, which is why we help secure sixteen Cosmos networks, including Kava, Agoric, Evmos, Oasis and others.</p><p>P2P is an established player with valuable relationships across the DeFi industry: we see the need for a secure, permission-less, well-connected and reliable smart-contract platform. So, we built Neutron.</p><p>Over the coming weeks and months, we will be sharing more details about Neutron. The future of the Interchain is bright, let’s build it together: join the conversation over on the <a href="https://forum.cosmos.network/t/proposal-bringing-liquid-staking-and-defi-to-the-cosmos-hub-with-interchain-security/">Cosmos Forum</a>.</p>

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