P2P Validator

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Solana How to stake Solana (SOL)?

<!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><p>Table of Contents</p> <ul> <li><a href="#T1"><span style=" font-size:16px"> What is Solana (SOL) Staking? </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T2"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Why Stake Solana (SOL) with P2P? </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T3"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Solana (SOL) Staking Rewards &amp; Fees<br> </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T4"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Solana (SOL) Warm-up &amp; Reward Distribution Frequency </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T5"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Solana (SOL) Undelegation Period </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T6"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Partially Delegating and Undelegating Solana (SOL) with Solflare </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T7"><span style=" font-size:16px"> How to Track my Solana (SOL) Staking Rewards<br> </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T8"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Monitoring Solana (SOL) Staking Rewards Using Solflare Wallet </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T9"><span style=" font-size:16px"> How Do I Claim Solana (SOL) Staking Rewards? </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T10"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Solana Liquid staking </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T11"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Solflare + Ledger Solana (SOL) Staking Guide </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T12"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Solflare Solana (SOL) Staking Guide </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T13"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Phantom Solana (SOL) Staking Guide </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T14"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Solana (SOL) Staking FAQ </span></a></li> </ul> <h2 id="what-is-solana-sol-staking-a-namet1a">What is Solana (SOL) Staking? <a name="T1"></a></h2> <p>When staking Solana (SOL) you are supporting the network with the additional benefit of compounding your SOL!</p> <p>Staking SOL is the process of holding SOL &quot;stake&quot; to partake and support the operations in the Solana network to receive rewards. In order to be a &quot;Validator&quot; and participate in these operations, one is required to maintain a server running continuously, technological knowhow, experience, and have a significant self-bond (surety bond).<br> This is where P2P Validator comes in, we allow SOL token holders to forget about all the heavy lifting i.e maintenance, surety bonds etc. by &quot;delegating&quot; their holdings to P2P to receive these rewards. We accumulate users' stake and act as a major validation node, receiving and allocating staking rewards between our users pro rata to the delegation.</p> <p>Users that chose to stake with P2P maintain full custody of their SOL at all times and P2P will never have access to them.</p> <h2 id="why-stake-solana-sol-with-p2p-a-namet2a">Why Stake Solana (SOL) with P2P? <a name="T2"></a></h2> <p>P2P is a leading Solana validator with more than 4 million in staked SOL, the highest network reliability &amp; low staking fees. We monitor and maintain Solana nodes to ensure maximum efficiency for SOL stakers.</p> <p>As we are SOL seed investors, it is very important to define the best means of network management and development. Our technical team has been involved in all of the Tour de Sol dry runs with the highest efficiency and has participated in all of TdS and SLP. We are a major player in all networks we support because of our experience, commitments and our reputation. We pay special attention to the process of governance. Our aim is to provide a secure and reliable service at the lowest cost maximising rewards for our delegators.</p> <h3 id="so-why-stake-sol-with-p2p">So why stake SOL with P2P?</h3> <ul> <li>High performance: low skip rate, high uptime</li> <li>Own Skin in the game with 2M+ SOL</li> <li>Secure, non-custodial staking</li> <li>Solana seed investors and contributors.</li> <li>Experienced DevOps’s team (Working with Solana from 2019)</li> <li>Ecosystem contributors (Solana Wormhole Hackaton winners)</li> <li>24/7 monitoring of machine and protocol metrics</li> </ul> <p>P2P Validator provides additional benefits for Stakers with more than 100k SOL, making it the best place for large investors. Get in touch with us here to learn more about how we can address your staking needs.</p> <h2 id="solana-sol-staking-rewards-fees-a-namet3a">Solana (SOL) Staking Rewards &amp; Fees <a name="T3"></a></h2> <p>You will be earning an estimated 7% APR when staking Solana (SOL) with P2P.</p> <p>In order to run the staking infrastructure, we charge a 7% fee on your rewards. The rewards after taking the fee into consideration will therefore be 6.51%.</p> <p>Example:</p> <p>I delegate 1000 SOL to P2P</p> <p>Reward: 10007% = 70 SOL<br> Fee = 707% = 4.9 SOL</p> <p>Estimated balance after 1 year = 1000+70-4.9 = 1065.1 SOL</p> <p>Please keep in mind that the APR specified is approximate and changes along with network conditions.</p> <h2 id="solana-sol-warm-up-reward-distribution-frequency-a-namet4a">Solana (SOL) Warm-up &amp; Reward Distribution Frequency <a name="T4"></a></h2> <p>One epoch in the SOL network lasts approximately 2-3 days.</p> <p>You will start earning rewards once your delegation goes from activating to effective, which takes one full epoch. You will then receive your rewards in the following epoch.</p> <p>Lets assume you select to delegate your SOL in epoch E1:</p> <p>E1: Your SOL is activating (up to approx. 2-3 days)<br> E2: Your SOL is effective (approx. 2-3 days)<br> E3: Receive your rewards for epoch E2</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/1-2.png" alt="Reward frequency"> </p> <p>Once your SOL stake is active, you will receive rewards every epoch. Rewards will automatically be added and compounded to your staked balance.</p> <h2 id="solana-sol-undelegation-period-a-namet5a">Solana (SOL) Undelegation Period <a name="T5"></a></h2> <p>One epoch in the SOL network lasts around 2-3 days.</p> <p>It takes one full epoch to deactivate your SOL delegation - once finished you will be able to withdraw it. This will include your original stake and any rewards you earned.</p> <p>Lets assume you select to undelegate your SOL in epoch E1:</p> <p>E1: Will start deactivating your Stake.<br> E2: Stake is undelegated and is available to withdaw.</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/2-2.png" alt="Undelegation Period"> </p> <h2 id="partially-delegating-and-undelegating-solana-sol-with-solflare-a-namet6a">Partially Delegating and Undelegating Solana (SOL) with Solflare <a name="T6"></a></h2> <h3 id="main-authority-and-staking-accounts">Main Authority and Staking accounts</h3> <p>In Solflare you have a main authority address where you can transfer SOL to and from your staking account(s).</p> <p>Main authority account can be found on your &quot;Portfolio page&quot;.</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image1.png" alt="Main Authority account"> </p> <p>You cannot transfer SOL directly from one staking account to another without first going through your main authority address. Staking accounts are used in order to delegate your SOL to validators.</p> <p>Staking accounts can be found on your &quot;Staking page&quot;. In the image below you can see that I have created three staking accounts. Two are activating (meaning my delegation transaction has been confirmed buy my stake is in the warming up period), and one is inactive (not staking).</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image7.png" alt="Staking accounts"> </p> <p>Only the full amount in a staking account can be delegated or undelegated. IE within one staking account, you will not be able to input a specific amount to partially delegate or undelegate. Furthermore, delegating and undelegating have warm-up and cool-down periods respectively. For these two reasons, it is important to understand the options available to partially undelegate your SOL with staking accounts to avoid waiting.</p> <p>For example if you have 100 SOL being delegated in a staking account and you want to undelegate and withdraw 50 SOL, it would be a waste of time to undelegate 100 SOL and wait for the cool down, withdraw 50 SOL out of your account, and then delegate 50 SOL again and wait for the warm-up. During the warm-up period you will not be earning rewards.</p> <p>Fortunately, Solflare has created the option to split a staking account, which provides a solution to partially delegate or undelegate your SOL without wasting time and rewards.</p> <h3 id="splitting-accounts">Splitting accounts</h3> <p>You can only delegate or undelegate the full amount - as opposed to a partial amount - in a staking account. To delegate or undelegate a partial amount you have the option to &quot;split&quot; your staking account. This will take a staking account and it will split it into two seperate ones, with the new account being transferred the split amount of SOL. Both accounts will keep the same status as it had before (delegating, activating, or inactive).</p> <ol> <li>To find the split function, first select your account and then &quot;SPLIT&quot;.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image24.png" alt="Split Solflare account"> </p> <ol start="2"> <li>Input the amount that you would like to move out of your staking account into the new one.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image10.png" alt="Split amount"> </p> <ol start="3"> <li> <p>Confirm the transaction.</p> </li> <li> <p>Once your new staking account has been created with the split amount, you can undelegate or delegate the SOL there.</p> </li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image13.png" alt="Delegate/Undelegate SOL"> </p> <p>You will then have to wait the cooldown period before your funds are available to withdraw.</p> <h2 id="how-to-track-my-solana-sol-staking-rewards-a-namet7a">How to Track my Solana (SOL) Staking Rewards <a name="T7"></a></h2> <p>To track your rewards you can use the Solana beach explorer. This explorer allows you to track any transactions made on any address on the Solana blockchain.</p> <p>Note that some wallets, like Solflare, have a table of your staking rewards integrated in their wallet already (more info here). However, this guide will allow anyone to be able to track their SOL rewards regardless of which wallet provider they use and which validator they selected to stake with.</p> <h3 id="track-your-rewards">Track your rewards</h3> <p>First you will need to find your staking accounts address to input into the Solana beach explorer. It will be a series of 44 characters and numbers.</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image8.png" alt="Solana beach"> </p> <p>Once you have searched for your staking accounts address, scroll down and select &quot;Stake Rewards&quot;. Here you will be provided a table with your rewards for each epoch.</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image2.png" alt="Stake rewards"> </p> <p>That's it! Remember that if you have any questions along the way or would like to share some feedback, please dont hesitate to contact us as we will be more than happy to help.</p> <h2 id="monitoring-solana-sol-staking-rewards-using-solflare-wallet-a-namet8a">Monitoring Solana (SOL) Staking Rewards Using Solflare Wallet <a name="T8"></a></h2> <p>You can track the staking rewards on your Solflare staking account. In order to do so, simply go to the staking page on Solflare and select the staking account address you are interested in.</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image18.png" alt="Stake Solflare"> </p> <p>Details will appear, showing your reward payouts for each epoch that you were actively delegating.</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image17.png" alt="Reward payouts"> </p> <p>For all past epochs, you will be able to view:</p> <ul> <li>Epoch</li> <li>Amount of rewards earned</li> <li>Balance update</li> <li>APR</li> <li>Commission charged</li> <li>Date the reward was received</li> </ul> <h2 id="how-do-i-claim-solana-sol-staking-rewards-a-namet9a">How Do I Claim Solana (SOL) Staking Rewards? <a name="T9"></a></h2> <p>One epoch in Solana lasts approximately 2-3 days.</p> <p>With your effective staked SOL, you will receive rewards every 2-3 days and it will automatically be added and compounded to your staked amount.</p> <p>If you want to withdraw your rewards, you will have to first undelegate your stake.</p> <h2 id="solana-liquid-staking-a-namet10a">Solana Liquid staking <a name="T10"></a></h2> <p>The pillar of P2P's core principals has since the beginning been decentralization. We believe that cryptocurrencies and the whole emerging industry surrounding it was built upon this.</p> <p>We believe in the benefits and the work being done on liquid staking solutions for this emerging industry and this is why we are proud to be not only one of the validators for LIDO's liquid Solana staking but also in charge of it's development.</p> <p>Liquid staking is a great way to build and develop new opportunities for the cryptocurrency industry to grow on both the staking and DeFI sectors.</p> <h2 id="solflare-ledger-solana-sol-staking-guide-a-namet11a">Solflare + Ledger Solana (SOL) Staking Guide <a name="T11"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><!--kg-card-begin: html--><p align="center"> <iframe width="720" height="405" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/Qc__wcHApIg" title="YouTube video player" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe> </p><!--kg-card-end: html--><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="solflare-solana-sol-staking-guide-a-namet12a">Solflare Solana (SOL) Staking Guide <a name="T12"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><!--kg-card-begin: html--><p align="center"> <iframe width="720" height="405" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/bJzPfYAIiNk" title="YouTube video player" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe> </p><!--kg-card-end: html--><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><p>Before starting you will have to own some SOL - you can purchase it on multiple <a href="https://coinmarketcap.com/rankings/exchanges/">cryptocurrency exchanges</a>.</p> <h3 id="create-solflare-wallet">Create Solflare wallet</h3> <ol> <li>To create a wallet select &quot;Access&quot; on the Solflare page.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image30.png" alt="Solflare"> </p> <ol start="2"> <li>Then select &quot;Create a new wallet&quot;.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image3.png" alt="Create new wallet"> </p> <ol start="3"> <li>Create a password that you will use to enter your wallet and to submit transactions. Select &quot;Next&quot; to proceed.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image19.png" alt="Create password"> </p> <ol start="4"> <li>Save your Mnemonic phrase somewhere secure! You will need this to recover your account to enter it from a new device or even from a new account on a browser, or potentially after a browser upgrade. If you lose it, you will lose access to your funds! Do not share this Mnemonic phrase with anyone, anyone who has access to it will have access to your funds!</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image6.png" alt="Save Mnemonic phrase"> </p> <ol start="5"> <li>Verify your Mnemonic phrase by typing it back in. Once completed, select &quot;Verify&quot;.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image4.png" alt="Verify Mnemonic phrase"> </p> <ol start="6"> <li>That's it your wallet has been created! After successfully completing the steps above, you will find yourself in the main menu of Solflare where you will find information about your wallet account address.</li> </ol> <h3 id="transfer-sol-to-your-wallet">Transfer SOL to your wallet</h3> <ol> <li>To find your receiving address select &quot;Receive&quot;.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image12.png" alt="Receive Address"> </p> <ol start="2"> <li>A pop up window will appear with your Solflare main authority address, and alternatively a QR code. Use this receiving address to send your SOL to your Solflare wallet.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image35.png" alt="Receive SOL"> </p> <p>Once you have transferred funds into your main authority wallet, you are now ready to start Staking!</p> <h3 id="staking-solana">Staking Solana</h3> <ol> <li>To start staking, you must first go to the staking section of the wallet by selecting &quot;Staking&quot; on the top of the page. You will then be given three options, Liquid SOL Staking, Native SOL Staking, and SLRS Staking. Select &quot;Native SOL Staking&quot;. You can find more information about Liquid SOL Staking on Lido's SOL Page. Lastly select &quot;Start Staking&quot;.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image37.png" alt="Staking SOL"> </p> <ol start="2"> <li>A pop up window will appear. Input the amount you wish to stake and the validator you wish to stake with. Leave some SOL in your wallet to pay for transaction fees. Since they are very low at Solana, only a small amount is required.</li> </ol> <p>To find P2P Validator type it in the search bar. Select &quot;Stake&quot; to proceed.</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image29.png" alt="Select P2P Validator"> </p> <ol start="3"> <li>You will then be prompted to enter your password one last time for security reasons.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image33.png" alt="Enter password"> </p> <ol start="4"> <li>Once your delegation transaction has been confirmed, you will see that your stake is activating. For more information on when you will start receiving rewards please refer to our SOL Warm-Up article.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image21.png" alt="Confirm delegation"> </p> <p>That's it! You are now delegating your SOL to P2P Validator. Note that your SOL are still fully in your custody, but you are delegating them to P2P to help us partake in network activities and you will be rewarded for your contribution!</p> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="phantom-solana-sol-staking-guide-a-namet13a">Phantom Solana (SOL) Staking Guide <a name="T13"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><!--kg-card-begin: html--><p align="center"> <iframe width="720" height="405" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/TXZF78L-wPg" title="YouTube video player" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe> </p><!--kg-card-end: html--><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><p>Before starting you will have to own some SOL - you can purchase it on multiple <a href="https://coinmarketcap.com/rankings/exchanges/">cryptocurrency exchanges</a>.</p> <h3 id="create-phantom-wallet-and-transfer-sol-to-it">Create Phantom Wallet and transfer SOL to it.</h3> <ol> <li>To start, you will want to download the Phantom extension on their <a href="https://phantom.app/">page</a>.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image28.png" alt="Download phantom wallet"> </p> <ol start="2"> <li>If the wallet page does not open up automatically after downloaded, you should select Phantom in your list of extensions. If you are using Google chrome, you can find your extension in the top right of the page.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image9.png" alt="Phantom wallet extension"> </p> <ol start="3"> <li>To create a wallet select &quot;Create New Wallet&quot;</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image31.png" alt="Create new Phantom wallet"> </p> <ol start="4"> <li>You will first be asked to save your Secrete Recovery Phrase. Save it somewhere secure! You will need this to recover your account to enter it from a new device or even from a new account on a browser, or potentially after a browser upgrade. If you lose it, you will lose access to your funds! Do not share this Secret Recovery Phrase with anyone, anyone who has access to it will have access to your funds!</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image27.png" alt="Save Secret Recovery Phrase"> </p> <ol start="5"> <li>Create a password that you will use to enter your wallet when you are logging in from the same device. Select &quot;Save&quot; to proceed.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image25.png" alt="Create a password for Phantom Wallet"> </p> <ol start="6"> <li>Once you have saved your password and proceeded to the next stages, you will have successfully created your wallet!</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image32.png" alt="Successfully create phantom wallet"> </p> <p>7.You will then want to transfer your SOL into your Phantom wallet where you will have fully custody of your SOL. To find your receiving address select &quot;Receive&quot;.</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image5.png" alt="Receive SOL"> </p> <ol start="8"> <li>To find you wallet address select &quot;Send from wallet / Exchange&quot; or alternatively you can Deposit SOL straight from FTX.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image14.png" alt="Find Phantom Wallet Address"> </p> <ol start="9"> <li>Phantom will provide you with a QR code as well as a button to copy your wallet address. You can use this receiving address to send your SOL to your Phantom wallet.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image20.png" alt="Receive SOL on Phantom"> </p> <p>Once you have transferred funds into you main authority wallet, you are now ready to start Staking!</p> <h3 id="staking-solana">Staking Solana</h3> <ol> <li>To start start staking go back to the main page of your wallet and select Solana.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image22.png" alt="Start Staking SOL on Phantom Wallet"> </p> <ol start="2"> <li>Select &quot;Start earning SOL&quot;.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image26.png" alt="Start Earning SOL"> </p> <ol start="3"> <li>To find P2P Validator type it in the search bar. Select it to proceed.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image36.png" alt="Find P2P Validator"> </p> <ol start="4"> <li>Enter the amount you wish to stake and select &quot;Stake&quot; to send out the delegation transaction.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image23.png" alt="Enter SOL Staking Amount"> </p> <ol start="5"> <li>Phantom will create a separate staking account for your stake and then will delegate it to P2P Validator.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image15.png" alt="Staking Account"> </p> <ol start="6"> <li>Once you see this message, your delegation transaction has now successfully been sent out!</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image38.png" alt="SOL Staked"> </p> <ol start="7"> <li>You will see that your stake is activating. For more information on when you will start receiving rewards please refer to our SOL Warm-Up article.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image11.png" alt="SOL Stake Activating"> </p> <p>That's it! You are now delegating your SOL to P2P Validator. Note that your SOL are still fully in your custody, but you are delegating them to P2P to help us partake in network activities and you will be rewarded for your contribution!</p> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="solana-sol-staking-faq-a-namet14a">Solana (SOL) Staking FAQ <a name="T14"></a></h2> <h3 id="what-is-solana">What is Solana?</h3> <p>Solana is a high-performance permissionless blockchain solving scalability issues without sharding and suitable for decentralized applications requiring high throughput.</p> <h3 id="what-is-the-solana-staking-apr">What is the Solana staking APR?</h3> <p>The Solana staking reward is approximately 7%. More info here.</p> <h3 id="how-often-are-staking-rewards-distributed">How often are staking rewards distributed?</h3> <p>Solana staking rewards are paid out to stakers approximately every epoch (2-3 days). More info here.</p> <h3 id="is-there-an-unstaking-period">Is there an unstaking period?</h3> <p>It can take up to 3 days for your SOL tokens to be transferable. More info here.</p> <h3 id="is-there-a-slashing-risk-for-validators">Is there a slashing risk for validators?</h3> <p>There is currently no slashing risk for Solana validators.</p> <h3 id="is-there-a-minimum-staking-amount-for-solana">Is there a minimum staking amount for Solana?</h3> <p>There is no minimum staking amount for SOL stakers.</p> <h3 id="do-staking-rewards-compound">Do staking rewards compound?</h3> <p>Yes, Solana staking rewards are compounded automatically.</p> <h3 id="what-is-the-solana-inflation-rate">What is the Solana inflation rate?</h3> <p>The Solana network inflation rate is approximately 8% per year.</p> <!--kg-card-end: markdown-->

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Axelar Axelar (AXL) Staking Guide

<p>This tutorial helps you stake and manage AXL tokens on the Axelar network, using the <a href="https://keplr.app/">Keplr</a> Wallet.</p><p>You must also have the native AXL token on the Axelar network. If you have an ERC-20 version of the token follow this <a href="https://axelar.network/blog/how-to-convert-erc-20-axl-to-native-axl">guide</a> to bridge your tokens.</p><h3 id="i-setting-up-your-keplr-wallet">I. Setting up your Keplr Wallet</h3><ol><li>Open the Keplr Browser Extension (available for <a href="https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/keplr/dmkamcknogkgcdfhhbddcghachkejeap">Chrome and Brave</a>) and press ‘Import Ledger’.</li></ol><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image.png" class="kg-image" alt="Create or sign in to Keplr Wallet" loading="lazy" width="384" height="455"></figure><p>2. Give the account a name, then click ‘Next’.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image-1.png" class="kg-image" alt="Keplr Account name" loading="lazy" width="384" height="455"></figure><p>3.  Select the Axelar network from the dropdown list.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image-3.png" class="kg-image" alt="Select the Axelar network" loading="lazy" width="351" height="363"></figure><h3 id="ii-staking-axl-on-the-axelar-blockchain">II. Staking AXL on the Axelar blockchain</h3><ol><li>Open the Keplr Browser Extension or go to the Keplr <a href="https://wallet.keplr.app/chains/axelar">dashboard</a> and choose the Axelar network. </li></ol><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/1-3.png" class="kg-image" alt="Keplr Dashboard" loading="lazy" width="242" height="860"></figure><p>2. Click on "Stake" in the Available Balance box.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image-16.png" class="kg-image" alt="Stake AXL" loading="lazy" width="279" height="140"></figure><p>3. Choose P2P validator from the list of available Validators.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image-13.png" class="kg-image" alt="Select P2P Validator" loading="lazy" width="1165" height="224" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2022/09/image-13.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2022/09/image-13.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image-13.png 1165w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>4. Enter the amount of AXL you want to stake and press "Delegate".</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image-14.png" class="kg-image" alt="Enter AXL amount" loading="lazy" width="679" height="667" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2022/09/image-14.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image-14.png 679w"></figure><p>5. A pop-up window will show up with the transaction. Set your preferred fee and confirm the transaction.</p><p> You are all done. Your AXL tokens are now staking and earning rewards.</p><h3 id="iii-claim-your-axelar-rewards">III. Claim your Axelar rewards</h3><ol><li>Open the Keplr Browser Extension and click ‘Claim’.</li></ol><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image-17.png" class="kg-image" alt="Claim AXL" loading="lazy" width="285" height="151"></figure><p>2. Choose your comfortable fee by hitting ‘Set Fee’ in the appropriate pop-up screen.</p><p>After claiming you can redelegate your tokens to compound your earnings.</p><hr><p><strong>About P2P Validator</strong><br><a href="https://p2p.org/"><em><em>P2P Validator</em></em></a><em><em> is a world-leading <strong><strong>non-custodial staking provider</strong></strong> with the best industry practices and proven expertise. We provide comprehensive due-diligence of digital assets and offer only high class staking opportunities securing more than 3<strong><strong> billion of USD</strong></strong> value at the time of the latest update.</em></em></p><p><em><em>P2P Validator is <strong><strong>trusted by over 24,000 delegators</strong></strong> across 25+ networks. We are a major player in all networks we support because of our experience, commitments and our <strong><strong>reputation</strong></strong>. We pay special attention to the process of governance. </em></em></p><p></p>

P2P Validator

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Cosmos How to stake Cosmos Hub (ATOM)?

<!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><p>Table of Contents</p> <ul> <li><a href="#T1"><span style=" font-size:16px"> What is Cosmos Hub (ATOM) Staking? </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T2"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Why Stake Cosmos Hub (ATOM) with P2P Validator? </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T3"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Cosmos Hub (ATOM) Staking Rewards &amp; Fees </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T4"><span style=" font-size:16px"> How to Track my Cosmos Hub (ATOM) Staking Rewards </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T5"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Cosmos Hub' (ATOM) Warm-up &amp; Reward Distribution Frequency </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T6"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Re-delegate Cosmos Hub (ATOM) </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T7"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Cosmos Hub (ATOM) Undelegation period </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T8"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Cosmos Hub (ATOM) Ledger Live Staking Guide </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T9"><span style=" font-size:16px"> imToken Comos (ATOM) Staking Guide </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T10"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Keplr + Ledger Cosmos Hub (ATOM) Staking Guide </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T11"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Cosmos Hub (ATOM) Staking FAQ </span></a></li> </ul> <h2 id="what-is-cosmos-hub-atom-staking-a-namet1a">What is Cosmos Hub (ATOM) Staking? <a name="T1"></a></h2> <p>When staking Cosmos Hub (ATOM) you are supporting the network with the additional benefit of compounding your ATOM!</p> <p>Staking ATOM is the process of holding ATOM &quot;stake&quot; to partake and support the operations in the Cosmos Hub network to receive rewards. In order to be a &quot;Validator&quot; and participate in these operations, one is required to maintain a server running continuously, technological knowhow, experience, and have a significant self-bond (surety bond).</p> <p>This is where P2P Validator comes in, we allow ATOM token holders to forget about all the heavy lifting i.e maintenance, surety bonds etc. by &quot;delegating&quot; their holdings to P2P to receive these rewards. We accumulate users' stake and act as a major validation node, receiving and allocating staking rewards between our users pro rata to the delegation.</p> <p>Users that chose to stake with P2P maintain full custody of their ATOM at all times and P2P will never have access to them.</p> <h2 id="why-stake-cosmos-hub-atom-with-p2p-validator-a-namet2a">Why Stake Cosmos Hub (ATOM) with P2P Validator? <a name="T2"></a></h2> <p>Every delegator is self-responsible for the financial decisions made. It is very important to choose the right validator in order to maximize your rewards.</p> <p>P2P Validator has been supporting the Cosmos Hub network from day one providing community building, educational materials and a solid development team. In the process, we have also set ourselves as a trusted validator for ATOM delegators.</p> <p>We have a highly skilled, dedicated and experienced team (proven by our victories at the Cosmos Hub Game of Stakes and Game of Zones) to handle the network operations involved in staking ATOM, promising the highest network reliability and performance to our delegators. We have a 100% uptime record and have never been slashed. We have a significant ATOM stake, further demonstrating the community's trust in our staking infrastructure. With consistency and a competitive fee, we promise to provide a high yield on your delegation.</p> <p>P2P Validator provides special offers for delegations over 50,000 ATOM making it one of the best places for institutional investors. You can register on our Cosmos Hub staking page or simply get in contact with us via telegram to receive these benefits.</p> <p>By staking ATOM with us you help secure the network and add more value to the Cosmos Hub ecosystem in the long run. If you have any concerns along the way you can get in touch with us anytime!</p> <h2 id="cosmos-hub-atom-staking-rewards-fees-a-namet3a">Cosmos Hub (ATOM) Staking Rewards &amp; Fees <a name="T3"></a></h2> <p>You will be earning an estimated 19% APR when staking Cosmos Hub (ATOM) with P2P. Please keep in mind that the APR specified is approximate and changes along with network conditions.</p> <p>In order to run the staking infrastructure, we charge a 8% fee on your rewards. The rewards after taking the fee into consideration will therefore be 17.48%</p> <p>Example:</p> <p>I delegate 1000 ATOM to P2P</p> <p>Reward: 1000*19% = 190 ATOM</p> <p>Fee = 190*8% = 15.2 ATOM</p> <p>Estimated balance after 1 year = 1000+190- 15.2 = 1174.8 ATOM</p> <p>By simply delegating my 1000 ATOM as I hold it, I will have supported the network and earned an additional 174.8 ATOM after 1 year. Please keep in mind that the APR specified is approximate and changes along with network conditions.</p> <h2 id="how-to-track-my-cosmos-hub-atom-staking-rewards-a-namet4a">How to Track my Cosmos Hub (ATOM) Staking Rewards <a name="T4"></a></h2> <p>Tracking Cosmos Hub (ATOM) staking rewards is really easy when using the <a href="https://wallet.keplr.app/">Keplr wallet</a>.</p> <p>On your dashboard you will be able to see the amount staked and every pending reward for each delegation you have, not only on ATOM, but for every Cosmos Hub ecosystem supported chain.</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/1-1.png" alt="Keplr dashboard"> </p> <h2 id="cosmos-hub-atom-warm-up-reward-distribution-frequency-a-namet5a">Cosmos Hub' (ATOM) Warm-up &amp; Reward Distribution Frequency <a name="T5"></a></h2> <p>Unlike most other networks, you will start receiving rewards as soon as you delegate!</p> <p>Cosmos Hub staking rewards are paid out in real-time, with rewards accruing approximately every 6 seconds. Your rewards will be distributed in a separate account from your delegation and are not compounded to your delegation. At any point you can decide to add them to your existing stake and start earning interest on them. The benefit of having your rewards paid out in a separate account is that they are not locked (you may withdraw them immediately) whereas it takes 21 days to unbond your delegated ATOM.</p> <h2 id="re-delegate-cosmos-hub-atom-a-namet6a">Re-delegate Cosmos Hub (ATOM) <a name="T6"></a></h2> <p>It is very important to choose a validator that you trust and respect. Sometimes the validator you have selected may begin to perform poorly affecting your rewards, or they change their configurations (ex: increase commissions). You may also find that you would rather support another validator that supports the ecosystem in a way that better suits your vision.</p> <p>With Cosmos Hub (ATOM), you have the option to instantly change your validator once every twenty-one days. If you partially re-delegate ATOM, you can re-delegate the remaining amount without the 21 day restraint.</p> <p>You will not lose out on any rewards while re-delegating, but you will have to pay a small transaction fee.</p> <h2 id="cosmos-hub-atom-undelegation-period-a-namet7a">Cosmos Hub (ATOM) Undelegation period <a name="T7"></a></h2> <p>If you wish to stop delegating all together, the Cosmos Hub network enforces a 21 day period for your ATOM to unbond. In that period, you will not be earning interest on your unbonding ATOM and will not be able to withdraw them.</p> <p>Be aware that you can only unbond ATOM seven times with the same validator within a twenty-one day period.</p> <h2 id="cosmos-hub-atom-ledger-live-staking-guide-a-namet8a">Cosmos Hub (ATOM) Ledger Live Staking Guide <a name="T8"></a></h2> <p>We have created a step-by-step guide to help you stake your Cosmos Hub (ATOM) using the Ledger Live application!</p> <p>How To Stake Cosmos (ATOM) with Ledger Live | P2P Validator</p> <p>Before you start, make sure that you:</p> <ul> <li>Have updated Ledger live to its latest version</li> <li>Download the latest version of the Cosmos Hub App</li> <li>Add an ATOM account. Learn more</li> <li>Add ATOM to your account</li> </ul> <p>Getting started:<br> Go to your accounts and select the one you wish to stake from.</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/2.png" alt="Select account"> </p> <p>At the bottom of the page you will see a section named &quot;nominations&quot;. Here click on the button &quot;Earn rewards&quot;:</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/3.png" alt="Nominations"> </p> <p>A new window will pop-up detailing information regarding the delegation process. After reading, press &quot;Continue&quot;:</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/4.png" alt="Earn Rewards"> </p> <p>Search for P2P validator from the list of validators. Input the amount you wish to stake and press &quot;Continue&quot;:</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/5.png" alt="Choose Validator"> </p> <p>You will be prompted to confirm the delegation on your ledger device. Please note that the Cosmos Hub APP must be open before proceeding.</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/6.png" alt="Confirm delegation"> </p> <p>You should now receive a confirmation message on your ledger live.</p> <p>That's it, your stake will activate and you'll start earning rewards immediately! Note that you will have to claim your rewards manually, which can either be added to your stake or to your available balances.</p> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="imtoken-comos-atom-staking-guide-a-namet9a">imToken Comos (ATOM) Staking Guide <a name="T9"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p></p><!--kg-card-begin: html--> <p align="center"> <iframe width="720" height="405" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/vS7YfHawhGc" title="YouTube video player" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe> </p><!--kg-card-end: html--><p></p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="keplr-ledger-cosmos-hub-atom-staking-guide-a-namet10a">Keplr + Ledger Cosmos Hub (ATOM) Staking Guide <a name="T10"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>This <a href="https://p2p.org/economy/p/d7bb9334-8989-4299-a16d-02e52d6f26b7/">tutorial</a> helps you stake and manage <a href="https://coinmarketcap.com/currencies/cosmos/">ATOM</a> tokens on the <a href="https://p2p.org/networks/cosmos">Cosmos</a> blockchain, using both the <a href="https://www.keplr.app/">Keplr</a> Browser Extension and Web Wallet together with your favorite <a href="https://www.ledger.com/">Ledger</a> device.</p><!--kg-card-begin: html--><p align="center"> <iframe width="720" height="405" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/_2uJZJ7BqYg" title="YouTube video player" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe> </p> <!--kg-card-end: html--><p></p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="cosmos-hub-atom-staking-faq-a-namet11a">Cosmos Hub (ATOM) Staking FAQ <a name="T11"></a></h2> <h3 id="what-is-cosmos-hub">What is Cosmos Hub?</h3> <p>Cosmos Hub is a decentralized network of independent, scalable, and interoperable blockchains.</p> <h3 id="what-is-the-cosmos-hub-staking-apr">What is the Cosmos Hub staking APR?</h3> <p>The Cosmos Hub staking reward is approximately 16.1%. More info here.</p> <h3 id="how-often-are-staking-rewards-distributed">How often are staking rewards distributed?</h3> <p>Cosmos Hub staking rewards are paid out in real-time, with rewards accruing approximately every 7 seconds. More info here.</p> <h3 id="is-there-an-unstaking-period">Is there an unstaking period?</h3> <p>The Cosmos Hub network has a 21 day unstaking period throughout which your tokens will not be transferable. More info here.</p> <h3 id="is-there-a-slashing-risk-for-validators">Is there a slashing risk for validators?</h3> <p>Cosmos Hub network does have slashing risk for delegators.</p> <h3 id="is-there-a-minimum-staking-amount-for-cosmos-hub">Is there a minimum staking amount for Cosmos Hub?</h3> <p>There is no minimum staking amount for staking ATOM.</p> <h3 id="do-staking-rewards-compound">Do staking rewards compound?</h3> <p>No, staking rewards must be claimed by the user manually and delegated to achieve compounding effect.</p> <h3 id="what-is-the-cosmos-hub-inflation-rate">What is the Cosmos Hub inflation rate?</h3> <p>The Cosmos Hub network inflation rate is approximately 7% per year.</p> <!--kg-card-end: markdown-->

P2P Validator

from p2p validator

Ethereum Ethereum 2.0 staking - The Beginners Guide

<!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h1 id="table-of-contents">Table of Contents</h1> <ul> <li><span style=" font-size:16px"> Ethereum 2.0 staking - The Beginners Guide </span> <ul> <li><a href="#T1"><span style=" font-size:16px"> What Is Ethereum 2.0?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T2"><span style=" font-size:16px"> What Is Ethereum 2.0 (ETH) Staking?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T3"><span style=" font-size:16px">Why Stake Ethereum for Ethereum 2.0?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T4"><span style=" font-size:16px">How Does Ethereum 2.0 (ETH) Staking Work?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T5"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Ethereum 2.0 (ETH) Staking Rewards &amp; Fees</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T6"><span style=" font-size:16px"> How Much Do You Make Staking Ethereum?</span></a> <ul> <li><a href="#T7"><span style=" font-size:16px"> When do I get my staking rewards?</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li><a href="#T8"><span style=" font-size:16px"> How do I Track My ETH 2.0 Staking Rewards?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T9"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Unstaking Period Ethereum (ETH)</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T10"><span style=" font-size:16px"> How to Stake Ethereum (ETH)?</span></a> <ul> <li><a href="#T11"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Solo Staking</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T12"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Staking as a Service</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T13"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Pooled Staking</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T14"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Centralized Exchanges</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T15"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Why Stake Ethereum with P2P?</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li><a href="#T16"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Possible Risks of Staking ETH</span></a> <ul> <li><a href="#T17"><span style=" font-size:16px"> What Will Ethereum 2.0 Value Be?</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li><a href="#T18"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Conclusion</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li><a href="#T19"><span style=" font-size:16px"> ETH 2.0 Staking FAQ</span></a> <ul> <li><a href="#T20"><span style=" font-size:16px"> What is Ethereum?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T21"><span style=" font-size:16px"> What is the Ethereum staking APR?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T22"><span style=" font-size:16px"> How often are staking rewards distributed?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T23"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Is there an unstaking period?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T24"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Is there a slashing risk for validators?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T25"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Is there a minimum staking amount for Ethereum?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T26"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Do staking rewards compound?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T27"><span style=" font-size:16px"> What is the Ethereum inflation rate?</span></a></li> </ul> </li> </ul> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>The Ethereum ecosystem has been gaining immense popularity in the last few years. This blockchain platform hosts a variety of DeFi projects and NFTs, while its native coin, ETH, remains the second largest cryptocurrency by market capitalization. Ethereum Foundation, the non-profit organization that supports this system, continuously attempts to improve the Ethereum network, making it more scalable, sustainable, and secure. </p><p>One of the most significant changes that Ethereum is undergoing now is the introduction of Ethereum 2.0, which implies a switch from the Proof-of-Work (PoW) to the Proof-of-Stake (PoS) protocol. This upgrade is aimed at solving the problem of fast-growing transaction costs (aka gas costs) and colossal energy consumption by shifting from mining to a staking mechanism. In this article, we will dive deeper into Ethereum 2.0, outline its key features, and provide you with all the important details on how to stake Ethereum (ETH).</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="what-is-ethereum-20a-namet1a">What is Ethereum 2.0?<a name="T1"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/SFTx3GHk7QKfs9OyQyk6Y8wLw6LZZPGQJpvB9Cau4pAJi_v5imj0zEDCnelYD_YSPqTbIrq8wtMTNCNcZ_pGM8H98Ka9JQd1zY_i70USWJhNTGAFpeE4nt_r4Mtn9YSRerWeULV3T4ySwdfCKcST2wA" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy"></figure><p>Ethereum 2.0 (also called Serenity or ETH2) is a number of updates planned by the Ethereum Foundation which are going to result in the ETH network moving from the PoW to PoS consensus protocol. The primary goal of this major network improvement is to solve the issues of scalability, high transaction fees, and energy consumption that have been plaguing Ethereum (ETH) since its inception. <br>The Ethereum Foundation has been working on these long-awaited upgrades for several years now. The first change happened in 2020 when the Beacon Chain was introduced. It opened the possibility of ETH staking. Another upgrade called “The Merge” is planned to occur in 2022. This step will unite ETH1 (the  execution layer) and ETH2 (the consensus layer) into one network. The total shift to the Proof-of-Stake mechanism is expected to finish in 2023 - 2024.<br></p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="what-is-ethereum-20-eth-staking-a-namet2a">What is Ethereum 2.0 (ETH) Staking? <a name="T2"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>The Proof-of-Work (PoW) consensus algorithm used by the current Ethereum ecosystem implies that miners validate transactions and add new blocks to the blockchain in exchange for rewards paid in ETH. <em>Although this approach has proven to be secure, it has some significant pitfalls. <br></em></p><ol><li><em><strong>Huge energy consumption.</strong> PoW is quite resource-intensive as it requires expensive hardware and a lot of electricity to power it. <br></em></li><li><em><strong>Ever-growing gas costs.</strong> As the network expands, the transaction fees increase. <br></em></li><li><em><strong>Limited scalability. </strong>The current Ethereum network can only process around 15 transactions per second.</em></li></ol><p><br>These issues can be resolved as soon as the Proof-of-Stake mechanism comes out. PoS is a much more efficient and eco-friendly way of validating transactions and adding new blocks to the blockchain. In this approach, instead of mining, there is a staking process in which users stake their Ethereum to validate transactions and earn rewards. As there is no need for expensive hardware or enormous amounts of electricity, PoS is much cheaper and more sustainable than PoW. <em>Moreover, as stakers can validate transactions much faster, Ethereum’s scalability will also improve.</em></p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="why-stake-ethereum-for-ethereum-20-a-namet3a">Why stake Ethereum for Ethereum 2.0? <a name="T3"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>Every ETH holder might wonder why it’s worth staking. Let’s consider the core reasons.</p><ol><li><strong>Extra income.</strong> Staking is a great way to earn passive returns. As long as you keep your ETH staked, you will continue to receive a percentage of rewards.</li><li><strong>Ethereum network development.</strong> This is one of the ways to support the Ethereum ecosystem and its shifting to the PoS consensus algorithm. If you stake your ETH, you help to secure the network and make it more scalable.</li><li><strong>Sustainability.</strong> Staking is eco-friendly. Unlike mining, it doesn’t require heavy energy consumption.</li><li><strong>Easy to start.</strong> Anyone with a computer can become a staker. It’s not necessary to have expensive hardware or much capital to get started.</li></ol><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="how-does-ethereum-20-eth-staking-work-a-namet4a">How does Ethereum 2.0 (ETH) Staking work? <a name="T4"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>ETH staking implies adding new blocks to the Ethereum blockchain. A user must deposit 32 ETH to become a full validator who is responsible for processing transactions, storing data, and adding blocks. The reward is earned for correctly validated transactions. If a validator submits fraudulent transactions or breaks the network rules, they are punished with a process known as slashing, which means that they could lose part of their investment and be kicked out of the ETH ecosystem.</p><p>There are some alternative ways to participate in staking. If a user doesn’t want to get into the details of this reward-earning approach or deal with hardware, they could make use of staking-as-a-service. For users who are limited in capital, there is an option of pooled staking. However, it’s crucial to remember that these techniques come with certain risks, especially related to the counterparty.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="ethereum-20-eth-staking-rewards-fees-a-namet5a">Ethereum 2.0 (ETH) Staking Rewards &amp; Fees <a name="T5"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>In staking, the amount of the reward is variable. It depends on factors such as the total amount of ETH staked, the length of time it is staked for, and the overall inflation rate. For example, if you stake your ETH for a shorter period, you will receive less reward than if you stake it for a longer time. However, as long as you keep your ETH staked, you will continue to receive rewards regularly. Most commonly, users who stake their ETH take a reward of about 8% Annual Percentage Rate (APR). This means that if you stake 1 Ethereum, you will have 1.08 ETH at the end of the year.<br>When it comes to the fees, everything depends on the platform the staker is using. The amount can greatly vary. For example, Lido takes 10% for ETH staking, Coinbase has a 25% fee, while <a href="https://p2p.org/networks/ethereum">P2P</a> charges a 10% fee.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="how-much-do-you-make-staking-ethereum-a-namet6a">How Much Do You Make Staking Ethereum? <a name="T6"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>As previously mentioned, the amount of money that can be earned from staking Ethereum can vary depending on several factors. The size of the reward is impacted by the amount of ETH that is being staked - the more ETH, the higher the potential reward. Another important factor to take into account is the time the Ethereum is being staked for - a longer period will typically result in more significant profits. In addition, it is also important to consider the current interest rate on Ethereum. The higher it is, the more money can be earned from staking this cryptocurrency. Currently, the average reward from ETH staking fluctuates between 3% - 8% paid annually.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h3 id="when-do-i-get-my-staking-rewards-a-namet7a">When do I get my staking rewards? <a name="T7"></a></h3> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>An Ethereum staker gets a reward after each epoch, which usually lasts 6.5 minutes on average. However, it’s important to note that the user should be active during this time to receive it, meaning that they should be online and validating.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="how-do-i-track-my-eth-20-staking-rewards-a-namet8a">How Do I Track My ETH 2.0 Staking Rewards? <a name="T8"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>To track Ethereum staking rewards, the user needs to find their staking address. It’s possible to do it in two ways:</p><ul><li>Find it via transaction history in the blockchain explorer (a tool that allows users to view information about a particular blockchain).<br></li><li>Get the staking address from the wallet and then insert it in the blockchain explorer to find the related information.</li></ul><p>Overall, the process of tracking your ETH 2.0 staking rewards is relatively simple and can be done using either a blockchain explorer or one of the multiple tools that help to track rewards.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="unstaking-period-for-ethereum-eth-a-namet9a">Unstaking period for Ethereum (ETH) <a name="T9"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>The unstaking or undelegation period is the time users must wait to withdraw their ETH if they want to stop staking. This period is required to ensure that all the rewards that have been earned are properly distributed. <br><br>On Ethereum, it is currently not possible to unstake your assets, once they are staked. Withdrawal of staked assets will be enabled in 2023 with the Shanghai upgrade. The unstaking period is variable and depends on how much ETH is queued to be unstaked at the time.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="how-to-stake-ethereum-a-namet10a">How to stake Ethereum? <a name="T10"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>There are a few different ways a user can stake Ethereum. Let’s have a look at them.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h3 id="solo-staking-a-namet11a">Solo staking <a name="T11"></a></h3> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>Solo staking means that users stake their ETH and do not pool it with others. This approach comes with the maximum reward since it is not shared with other users. For this type of staking, it’s necessary to invest 32 ETH and have a robust computer with a constant internet connection.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h3 id="staking-as-a-service-a-namet12a">Staking as a service <a name="T12"></a></h3> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>This is an easier way for users to participate in staking without having to set up their own validators or run any special software. Instead, they simply deposit their ETH into the provider's smart contract. This model allows for earning rewards without having to bear the full costs and risks of running a validator node. Although Ethereum staking service providers typically charge a small fee, this is often offset by the higher rewards that they offer.</p><p>Staking as a service exists in three forms: custodial, semi-custodial, and non-custodial.<br></p><ul><li><strong>Custodial service providers</strong> completely manage the staking process. They own the users’ validator and withdrawal keys.</li><li><strong>Semi-custodial service providers</strong> don’t hold users’ withdrawal keys, and thus don’t have access to the customer funds, but they do hold users' validator keys.</li><li><strong>Non-custodial service providers</strong> allow users to earn interest on their Ethereum holdings without having to give up control of their private keys.<br></li></ul><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h3 id="pooled-staking-a-namet13a">Pooled Staking <a name="T13"></a></h3> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>Pooled staking is when users pool their Ethereum together to have a better chance of validating blocks and earning rewards. This is a great way for users to earn rewards without having to stake 32 ETH. However, it’s crucial to remember that it’s not a native staking method, and thus it comes with increased third-party risks.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h3 id="centralized-exchanges-a-namet14a">Centralized Exchanges <a name="T14"></a></h3> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>This staking method has gained particular popularity among ETH holders. A centralized exchange is a suitable choice for users who don’t feel comfortable holding Ethereum in their wallets and managing their keys. Although centralized exchanges typically offer higher rewards than other methods of staking, they also come with the risk of losing ETH if the exchange is hacked or becomes insolvent.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h3 id="why-stake-ethereum-with-p2p-a-namet15a">Why stake Ethereum with P2P? <a name="T15"></a></h3> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p><a href="https://p2p.org/networks/ethereum">P2P</a> provides non-custodial services for Ethereum (ETH) staking. As previously mentioned, this means that users keep full control of their assets and the platform doesn’t have access to their private keys. </p><p><a href="https://p2p.org/">P2P</a> is a cutting-edge solution that provides its customers with top-notch security, transparency, and strong community support. When it comes to ETH staking rewards and fees, after The Merge, it offers its users a ~8% APR and charges a 10% validator fee. By staking before The Merge, a 0.1 ETH flat fee is charged for every 32 ETH.</p><p>New and existing clients can benefit from a 0% validator fee per quarter when staking more than 320 ETH.<br>P2P is one of the leading Node Operators at LIDO, running thousands of nodes for almost 2 years. By opting for this ETH staking solution, users receive high-quality service and 24/7 expert account monitoring and support.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="possible-risks-of-staking-eth-a-namet16a">Possible risks of staking ETH <a name="T16"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/yboZPMkuwLYbqf0ogKAcgMLlQMbdiWl3y1A9VodxcUbzSvlxLMzwm247h7hwtclbKy8sSqlyjlilukqMcr-f-fs97vBjqoU6ZSijj6cUtQQfkqhyuNXtb9fcMaExSJqjp8lcqZgpyrOwX-aHiv2mqcI" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy"></figure><p>If you decide to stake your ETH, it’s important to be aware of the risks related to this approach. Let’s have a look at the most significant ones:<br></p><ol><li><strong>Unclear price of ETH 2.0.</strong> The value of Ethereum 2.0 will undoubtedly differ from the current Ethereum price. If it goes down, you will still earn rewards for staking, but the overall value of your investment will decrease. However, if Ethereum 2.0 turns out to be successful, its value is likely to increase along with your potential rewards.<br></li><li><strong>Unstaking.</strong> Users will not be able to withdraw their staked Ethereum by the time Ethereum 2.0 is completely released. This could take a couple of years. Currently, the Ethereum Foundation has scheduled the terminal stage for 2023-2024.<br></li><li><strong>Slashing.</strong> This is the risk of losing some funds. Slashing is a penalty imposed on stakers who fail to comply with the network rules or validate fraudulent transactions.<br></li><li><strong>Private key loss.</strong> If a user loses their private keys, they will not be able to access their ETH, and thus will not be able to earn rewards.<br></li></ol><p>While all these risks are possible, they are also relatively unlikely if you are well aware of the features and limitations of this approach.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h3 id="what-will-ethereum-20-value-be-a-namet17a">What will Ethereum 2.0 Value Be? <a name="T17"></a></h3> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>Different crypto experts have various expectations about the Ethereum price in the short- and long-term perspective. However, the majority of them agree that the improvements related to Ethereum 2.0 will push this crypto to enter a bullish market. </p><p><a href="https://coinpedia.org/information/market-price-prediction-ethereum-2019/">Coinpedia</a> expects Ethereum to be traded at about $5,000 at the end of 2023. Moreover, if the ETH 2.0 release turns out to be successful, the value of this crypto could hit a maximum of around $11,000 in 2025.<br><br><a href="https://coinpriceforecast.com/ethereum-forecast-2020-2025-2030">Coin Price forecast</a> also has a positive forecast for the Ethereum price. However, it’s more reserved. This platform believes that ETH will reach the level of about $2,200 by the end of 2022 and will continue growing, approaching $2,800 in 2025.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="conclusion-a-namet18a">Conclusion <a name="T18"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>Ethereum staking could be a great way of gaining extra income. Moreover, this process, in contrast to mining, comes with significantly improved scalability, security, and sustainability. However, before making any decision, it’s crucial to be aware of the risks involved. One of the main issues to take into account is that users will not able to withdraw their staked Ethereum by the time Ethereum 2.0 is completely released.<br><br>If you decide that the advantages of this approach outweigh its potential risks, you need to choose among the several possible ways to stake Ethereum and commence your journey.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h1 id="eth-20-staking-faq-a-namet19a">ETH 2.0 Staking FAQ <a name="T19"></a></h1> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="what-is-ethereuma-namet20a">What is Ethereum?<a name="T20"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>Ethereum is a decentralized, open-source blockchain featuring smart contract functionality. Its native token, ETH, is the second largest crypto by market cap after Bitcoin. Ethereum is a unique platform that serves as a home for many decentralized applications and NFTs. Currently, the network is undergoing some significant changes which will result in shifting from a Proof-of-Work to a Proof-of-Stake mechanism.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="what-is-the-ethereum-staking-apr-a-namet21a">What is the Ethereum staking APR? <a name="T21"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>In Ethereum staking, the reward may vary depending on the amount of ETH invested, the time it is staked for, the inflation rate, and more. However, the average Ethereum staking yield is about 5.4%.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="how-often-are-staking-rewards-distributed-a-namet22a">How often are staking rewards distributed? <a name="T22"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>Ethereum staking rewards are distributed by stakers every 24 hours. The amount of the rewards depends on the number of ETH tokens staked, the time they are staked for, inflation, and more. However, typically it is around 4% per year.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="is-there-an-unstaking-period-a-namet23a">Is there an unstaking period? <a name="T23"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>Unstaking Ethereum or any other crypto means taking these coins out of the staking pool. There is no unstaking period in the Ethereum network, and your tokens will be transferable immediately upon unstaking. Note that once you have unstaked your coins, they are no longer eligible for staking rewards.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="is-there-a-slashing-risk-for-validators-a-namet24a">Is there a slashing risk for validators? <a name="T24"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>Yes, there is such a risk. Slashing is a type of punishment imposed on users who don’t comply with network regulations or submit fraudulent transactions. This could result in a user losing some of their funds or even being kicked out of the network.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="is-there-a-minimum-staking-amount-for-ethereum-a-namet25a">Is there a minimum staking amount for Ethereum? <a name="T25"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>In general, there is no minimum amount to stake Ethereum. However, there could be some minimum requirements set by individual staking pools. P2P users don’t have to provide any minimum ETH staking amount.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="do-staking-rewards-compound-a-namet26a">Do staking rewards compound? <a name="T26"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>No, Ethereum staking rewards don't compound; most smart contracts do not allow for compounding rewards. This means that users cannot gain interest on their interest.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="what-is-the-ethereum-inflation-rate-a-namet27a">What is the Ethereum inflation rate? <a name="T27"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>The annual Ethereum supply is limited to 18,000,000. This means that its inflation rate has to decrease each year. As a result, in 2022, Ethereum inflation dropped from 1.10% to 0.51% during the first quarter.</p><p></p><p></p>

P2P Validator

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Kusama, Moonbeam Postmortem: Moonbeam Collator Incident (September 4 2022)

<p></p><h3 id="summary">Summary </h3><p>On September 4 at 15:15 UTC one of our collators stopped syncing and due to an error in the monitoring rules the incident went unnoticed. As a result of this the collator did not produce blocks for a period of 27 hours.</p><h3 id="what-happened">What Happened?</h3><p>An error was made in one of the many rules of our monitoring system. When writing this rule, we mistakenly used the wrong metric to determine the status of the collator in the candidate list. As a result, when the collator stopped synchronizing, the engineering team did not receive any notifications about the incident.</p><h3 id="customer-impact">Customer Impact</h3><p>Delegators who nominated and had their staked allocated to this collator did not receive rewards for a period of 4 rounds.</p><h3 id="what-went-wrong">What went wrong?</h3><p>Unfortunately, we received information about the incident from an external source, which is unacceptable.</p><h3 id="what-went-well">What went well?</h3><p>After receiving information about the incident, the failed collator was promptly restored as soon as possible and began to produce blocks.</p><h3 id="lessons-learnt-and-action-plan">Lessons learnt and action plan</h3><p>We are going to implement strict checks and audits of all our monitoring rules. We are also in the process of automating testing of monitoring rules as much as possible before applying them to the production environment.</p><p><br>P2P takes full responsibility for the event that led to the weak performance and we are sorry for the inconvenience. Please be assured that we are taking actions to eliminate even a small probability of such an event occurring in the future.</p><hr><p><strong><strong><strong>About P2P Validator</strong></strong></strong></p><p><a href="https://p2p.org/">P2P Validator</a> is a world-leading staking provider with the best industry security  practices and proven expertise. We provide comprehensive due-diligence of digital assets and offer only high class staking opportunities. At the time of the latest update, more than 1.5 billion USD value is staked with P2P Validator by over 25,000 delegators across 40+ networks.</p><p><em><em>If you have any questions, feel free to join our<a href="https://t.me/P2Pstaking"> Telegram chat</a>, we are always open for communication.</em></em></p><p><br></p><p> </p>

P2P Validator

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Cardano What to look for when choosing a Cardano pool?

<h3></h3><p>At first, Cardano might appear to have a complicated staking system, but in reality it's quite simple. In this article we will begin by outlining Cardano’s staking architecture before moving on to the key factors about validator pools that will affect your Return-on-Assets (ROA). By the end of this article, you will be able to confidently select a validator pool that is the right fit for you. <br></p><h2 id="staking-architecture">Staking Architecture</h2><p>To get a better understanding of the whole staking architecture, let's first start with how rewards are generated. Within each epoch, fees from network operations and new emissions are collected into a fund. Part of these collected assets goes to the Cardano treasury, while the rest is distributed to validators and delegators as a reward for their commitment to securing the network through staking. <br><br>The validator's role is to secure the network. They are responsible for confirming the validity of new blocks of transactions which are then added to the network's ledger. Every time a new block is added to the ledger, validators are rewarded with staking rewards. </p><p>Cardano token holders can earn staking rewards by delegating their ADA assets to one of the many available validator pools. By delegating your ADA to a validator pool, you are providing this validator with your tokens rights to participate in the validation of blocks. Validators will redistribute their earnings to their delegators pro rata to their stake. </p><p>A validator's probability to be allocated a block to produce, depends on a number of factors. <strong>Pool saturation, </strong>which refers to how much stake a particular pool has,<strong> </strong>is the most important factor when it comes to allocation of new blocks. The higher the pool saturation, the higher is the amount staked in the pool. The greater a pool's stake is, the more blocks will be allocated to them. If the pool does not have enough stake to be allocated a new block, it can take as long as 5 or 50 epochs before they will produce a block. <br><br>So what factors are important to take into consideration when selecting the right validator pool? Below we explain the several key factors to take into account.</p><h2 id="important-factors-when-selecting-a-validator-pool"><br>Important factors when selecting a validator pool<br></h2><h3 id="pool-saturation">Pool saturation </h3><p>The Cardano staking architecture was created in a way that pool saturation does not have a significant effect on ROA in the long run. <br><br>Pools with larger stakes will have more blocks allocated to them and therefore will generate more rewards, but they will also have to distribute it amongst more delegated stake. Smaller pools will produce blocks less often, but will generate a high return to their delegators when they do. <br><br>One has to consider their strategy when deciding which pool to select: Whether they would rather choose a pool with high saturation that will produce more blocks and distribute rewards more evenly and frequently, or choose a less saturated pool that will produce fewer blocks but distribute greater rewards when it does. </p><p>However, in order to promote decentralisation, the Cardano protocol has a cap on the amount of rewards a validator's pool can receive. Therefore, if a pool is <em><strong>oversaturated</strong></em>, the rewards received for producing blocks will have to distribute between all the ADA that was delegated to that pool. This leads to lower rewards per each ADA delegation. The current oversaturation limit is 64 million ADA.</p><h3 id="pool-fees-margin"><br>Pool Fees (Margin)</h3><p>Validators may charge a fee (margin) for maintaining its pools, keeping a percentage of all rewards received. The usual margin for public pools is between 1 and 3%, which has a very low impact on rewards. For example, even if you stake 1 million ADA on nodes with 0% and 1% commission (let’s take average nodes with 50% saturation), the difference in rewards between them will be about 5-10 ADA per epoch. <br><br>Do note that validators can set the fee up to 100%, so it is important to check that the commission is not set too high.</p><h3 id="pledge">Pledge</h3><p>A pledge is an amount of assets self-bonded by the validator intended to remain staked to its pool for as long as it operates. It can affect ROA, but only very slightly. Below we will take a look at an example.</p><p>As an illustration, let's look at the change in the possible ROA depending on the pool parameters:</p><p>Let's imagine we have three pools, each with a saturation of 30 million ADA. Each of them has the following pledge values:</p><p>Pool 1 - 10,000 ADA, </p><p>Pool 2 - 100,000 ADA  </p><p>Pool 3 - 1,000,000 ADA</p><p>If you were to stake 10 million ADA, you would get the following ROA on each pool:</p><p>Pool 1 - 3.958%</p><p>Pool 2 - 3.960%</p><p>Pool 3 - 3.982%<br></p><p>As we can see, although there is a difference, it is not significant.<br></p><h3 id="luck">Luck </h3><p>Luck reflects the protocol randomness in the allocation of blocks. When a pool gets allocated more blocks to generate than expected, the luck metric is greater than 100%. If a pool gets allocated less blocks than it would be expected then that number is less than 100%.</p><p>Pools experience this metric every epoch regardless of their size and it is completely random, so smaller pools will see swings between 0% and 100% during long streaks, whereas larger pools will see higher returns in the same period. Over a long enough period of time, the expected APY on rewards will average towards the network expected value.</p><p>It's important to keep in mind that block allocation is calculated on the basis of statistics. If a pool has gotten more than it's expected share of blocks in the past, future block allocations will be lower and vice-versa. </p><h2 id="reliability-and-reputation">Reliability and Reputation</h2><p>Since Pool Saturation, Pledge and Luck do not have a significant impact on ROA in the long run on pools with similar fees, the main consideration a delegator needs to have when selecting a validator pool is the validator’s reliability. In case of failures, errors, etc., no blocks will be created and consequently no participant will receive any reward. So when choosing a pool, this decision should be made responsibly to be sure that the infrastructure is maintained without failures. You can analyse validators' historical performances on <a href="https://adapools.org/">explorers.</a></p><p><br>Let's take an example with one of P2P’s pools. Using the following <a href="https://adapools.org/pool/c29c92f8319150962650bc8a5e24d918491e8a7b3ac43525afe76baa">link</a> to the explorer, you can verify the performance and configurations of P2P. You can see that the saturation is less than half, it has a margin of 0%, a pledge of 1M ADA and it has a ROA of around 4-5%.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/LpTAxAlKIXJyY-JI_abbpO_Ryo6M6V7qFNqtWhm8R38oGMdFWGWaECyyyAda8xus17qRz2gNsNFqWd3DnSb7RVFYJD9BqKLIwHsnMWlb-wpaKGcn5E8sEd0_DsCA-QfkeEOSQ2siZnDtTORjzn53FXsCYIPyXN0XJTHeWRf0aep6JQhPG4p2m2QmfQ" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy"></figure><p>Delegating to a public node is not the only way to stake. Many experienced validators, including P2P, provide the option to maintain a whitelabel node for large token holders. Essentially, a team would be responsible for maintaining the node, but it would be managed and owned by the token holder. In other words, a DevOps team would solve all the technical issues, whereas the owner would control the margin, marketing, etc. </p><h2 id="takeaways">Takeaways</h2><p>The Cardano staking architecture was designed in a way to provide all well performing staking pools with similar profitability opportunities, regardless of the size of their stake. Therefore, when selecting a public node, the most important consideration is the fee, the stability and reliability of the validator. Validators with low up time, or in cases where technical failures occur, may miss blocks and as a result delegators will lose out on potential rewards.<br></p><hr><h3 id="about-p2p-validator"><strong>About P2P Validator</strong></h3><p><a href="https://p2p.org/">P2P Validator</a> is a world-leading staking provider with the best industry security  practices and proven expertise. We provide comprehensive due-diligence of digital assets and offer only high class staking opportunities. At the time of the latest update, more than 1.5 billion USD value is staked with P2P Validator by over 25,000 delegators across 40+ networks.</p><p><em>If you have any questions, feel free to join our<a href="https://t.me/P2Pstaking"> Telegram chat</a>, we are always open for communication.</em></p>

P2P Validator

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Polkadot P2P Raises Fee at Polkadot while Continuing to increase sustainability

<h1></h1><p>P2P Validator has been supporting the Polkadot network from day one, <strong>providing high-quality validation services</strong> for DOT nominators. Our <strong>developed products allow nominators</strong> to easily manage investments and receive a detailed report on their staking income.</p><p><strong>We invest in the development of the Polkadot network</strong> and see long-term prospects, however, the costs of maintaining the infrastructure and product development are  higher than the revenues that the validator currently receives. We have decided to <strong>set a commission of 1% starting from 5 September 2022</strong> to remain flexible and provide more sustainable services.</p><h2 id="what-have-we-done"><strong>What have we done?</strong></h2><p>We <strong>did not stop the development activity</strong> in the Polkadot network and put in more than eight months of hard work for a reduced fee. Here is a list of the <strong>most significant achievements</strong> that we have released for the Polkadot ecosystem:</p><ol><li><a href="https://p2p.org/snapshot/polkadot">Snapshot service </a>for everyone who is running their own validators.</li><li><a href="https://github.com/p2p-org/substrate_node">Substrate node</a>. Compact set of terraform and ansible roles for deploying substrate-based node</li><li>Received and released a grant from WEB3 Foundation for a Multi Blockchain ETL solution for blockchains with an API for the collected data. We proceed to support the infrastructure for the MBELT, spending thousands of dollars every month.</li><li>Five articles and users guides posted.</li><li><a href="https://reports.p2p.org/superset/dashboard/polkadot_sample_report/?native_filters_key=UDDVi9IA6qtvjLQ1Kdg1lZ0LK4ZYcpf5oOs_UlOMnt7mBS7cc76QJ-Vw_5uBnPYT">P2P Dashboard</a> for Polkadot users:</li></ol><ul><li>Track and analyse nominator rewards</li><li>Different strategies performance overview</li><li>CSV reward report</li></ul><p>Product development inside the ecosystem is an essential element not only to support the Polkadot network but also as a part of the <strong>long-term growth of the community and the network value.</strong></p><h2 id="when-will-the-commission-be-increased"><strong>When will the commission be increased?</strong></h2><p>We will increase the commission to 1% starting September 5, 2022. There is a lot of work ahead, and we believe that <strong>joint efforts will accelerate the evolution of the Polkadot network.</strong></p><p>We want to <strong>thank all our nominators</strong> for their continuous support and for being with us!</p><p><strong>Special offer for <strong>20</strong>,<strong>000+</strong> DOT holders</strong></p><p>If you stake 20,000+ DOT, you can benefit from staking with P2P rebalancing service. Our optimized staking strategy provides up to 20% higher rewards than the network average. Our clients currently benefit from a 15% APR vs 13.8% net</p><p><strong>P2P plans of further developments</strong></p><p>While staying a reliable and affordable validator, P2P team plans to design and release block finalization community exporter to share our findings in tracking validator performance. We are committed to success of the Polkadot Network in the long term and hope that you can embark on this journey with us.</p><p>If you would like to know more about our offer for Polkadot please visit: <a href="https://p2p.org/networks/polkadot">https://p2p.org/networks/polkadot</a><br><br>If you have any questions, feel free to join our<a href="https://t.me/P2Pstaking"> Telegram chat</a>, we are always open for communication.</p><hr><h2 id="about-p2p-validator"><strong>About P2P Validator</strong></h2><p><a href="https://p2p.org/">P2P Validator</a> is a world-leading staking provider with the best industry security  practices and proven expertise. We provide comprehensive due-diligence of digital assets and offer only high class staking opportunities. At the time of the latest update, more than 1.5 billion USD value is staked with P2P Validator by over 25,000 delegators across 40+ networks.</p>

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Ethereum Ethereum 2.0 FAQ

<p>If you are looking for information about The Merge we've got you covered. Below you can find answers to the most common questions about the upcoming Ethereum upgrade. </p><p></p><h3 id="what-is-ethereum-20">What is Ethereum 2.0?</h3><p>Ethereum 2.0 (ETH2) is a set of upgrades that looks to make Ethereum more scalable, secure and sustainable.</p><h3 id="will-ethereum-be-renamed-after-the-merge">Will Ethereum be renamed after The Merge?</h3><p>No, Ethereum will still be Ethereum and no new cryptocurrencies will be created. The ticker for the Ethereum token will remain the same, ETH.</p><p>This misconception comes from the fact that for a time ETH on the mainnet was referred to as ETH1 and ETH on the Beacon Chain was referred to as ETH2. After The Merge however only ETH will exist.</p><h3 id="what-are-the-major-differences-between-current-ethereum-and-ethereum-20">What are the major differences between current Ethereum and Ethereum 2.0?</h3><p>There are two big changes happening with the introduction of ETH2.</p><p>The first one will be a shift from Proof of work (PoW) to Proof of Stake (PoS). The second one will be the introduction of shard chains. </p><h3 id="what-is-the-difference-between-proof-of-work-pow-and-proof-of-stake-pos">What is the difference between Proof of Work (PoW) and Proof of Stake (PoS)?</h3><p>PoW is a consensus mechanism that relies on computational power and the expenditure of energy to validate transactions on a blockchain. In PoS validators use capital to validate transactions. This not only helps alleviate environmental concerns associated with PoW but also improves security and scalability.</p><h3 id="when-will-eth2-launch">When will ETH2 launch?</h3><p>The ETH2 launch will be segmented into phases. </p><p>The first phase occurred in December 2020 with the launch of the <strong>Beacon Chain</strong>. The launch of the Beacon Chain marked an important milestone in the road to ETH2, introducing PoS to Ethereum.</p><p>The next phase is called <strong>The Merge</strong> and it is scheduled to happen on September 19, 2022. The Merge represents the fusion of the current Ethereum mainnet with the Beacon Chain. This update will replace the current Proof of Work consensus mechanism with Proof of Stake.</p><p><strong>Shard chains</strong> are a scalability mechanism through which the blockchain is divided among many different nodes thus allowing transactions to be processed in parallel instead of consecutively. This helps drastically improve the network amount of transactions per second. This upgrade is currently expected to launch somewhere in 2023 following The Merge. There has been no confirmed date yet but be on the lookout for announcements.</p><h3 id="what-will-happen-to-my-ethereum">What will happen to my Ethereum?</h3><p>You won’t need to do anything with your Ethereum. The Merge was set up to be a seamless transition for the average user.</p><h3 id="what-is-ethereum-expected-staking-apr-after-the-merge">What is Ethereum expected staking APR after The Merge?</h3><p>The current APR before The Merge is around 4%. After The Merge the best estimates place the APR between the range of 7-11%. </p><p>You can find a more comprehensive answer to this question <a href="https://blog.lido.fi/modelling-the-entry-queue-post-merge-an-analysis-of-impacts-on-lidos-socialized-model/">here</a>.</p><h3 id="will-there-be-a-proof-of-work-fork-of-ethereum-after-the-merge-can-i-get-tokens-on-the-new-chain-if-i-stake-them">Will there be a Proof-of-Work fork of Ethereum after The merge? Can I get tokens on the new chain if I stake them?</h3><p>Yes, there most likely will be a fork of Ethereum after The Merge. Staked Ethereum will probably also not be counted towards getting new tokens in the forked chain.</p><p>There are pros in choosing to stake early rather than wait for the fork. As more ETH gets staked the less rewards are available for each validator. Due to the expected increase in staking APR post-merge one can capture this yield by staking early.</p><p>By waiting to stake one can also risk being caught up in the staking queue that can form if a large number of validators are trying to be created at the same time. This can push the current waiting period to start earning rewards, which currently goes up to 7 days, to a 2 to 4 months waiting period. </p><p>The calculation being made here is between the profit earned from the tokens on the new chain versus the loss of staking rewards for 2 to 4 months.</p><h3 id="what-is-the-minimum-amount-of-eth-i-can-stake">What is the minimum amount of ETH I can stake?</h3><p>You don’t need any Ethereum to run a node. However to validate blocks and earn staking rewards you need to stake at least 32 ETH.</p><p>Running a non-block-producing node is still incentivized since it improves network security.</p><h3 id="how-often-are-staking-rewards-distributed">How often are staking rewards distributed? </h3><p>Withdrawals from the Beacon Chain are not enabled so rewards are not being distributed just yet. You can still earn rewards however. </p><h3 id="will-i-be-able-to-earn-mev-rewards-from-staking">Will I be able to earn MEV rewards from staking?</h3><p>Yes, our APR estimates include MEV rewards.</p><h3 id="is-there-a-slashing-risk-for-validators">Is there a slashing risk for Validators?</h3><p>Yes, there is slashing risk to prevent malicious actions on the network.</p><h3 id="do-staking-rewards-compound">Do staking rewards compound?</h3><p>No, staking rewards do not compound because withdrawals from the Beacon Chain will not be enabled just yet.</p><h3 id="will-the-network-experience-any-downtime-during-the-merge">Will the network experience any downtime during The Merge?</h3><p>No, the network will not experience any downtime. The upgrade was designed to cause no disruption to the network.</p><h3 id="will-the-gas-fees-reduce-after-the-merge">Will the gas fees reduce after The Merge?</h3><p>No, The Merge changes the consensus mechanism from PoW to PoS. Gas fees are dictated by the network usage, future updates will look to address gas fees.</p><h3 id="will-transactions-be-faster-after-the-merge">Will transactions be faster after The Merge?</h3><p>It’s very unlikely. The Merge focus is not on scalability, future upgrades to the network will focus on scalability.<br></p><p>If you are interested in staking Ethereum with P2P, please email us at <a href="mailto:[email protected]" rel="noopener noreferrer">[email protected]</a>.</p><hr><p>About P2P Validator</p><p><a href="https://p2p.org/">P2P Validator</a> is a world-leading staking provider with the best industry security  practices and proven expertise. We provide comprehensive due-diligence  of digital assets and offer only high class staking opportunities. At the time of the latest update, <strong><strong><strong><strong>more than </strong></strong>2.9<strong><strong> billion of USD value is staked with P2P Validator by over 2</strong></strong>5<strong><strong>,000 delegators across 25+ networks.</strong></strong></strong></strong></p><p>Want to stake Ethereum with us? Visit <a href="https://p2p.org/networks/ethereum">p2p.org/networks/ethereum</a>  to find out more about Ethereum staking.</p><p>If you have any questions, feel free to join our<a href="https://t.me/P2Pstaking"> Telegram chat</a>, we are always open for communication.</p>

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Cosmos Introducing Neutron

<h3 id="p2p-is-building-neutron-a-permission-less-zone-featuring-cosmwasm-and-full-ibc-capability-including-interchain-accounts-and-queries-to-host-the-interchain%E2%80%99s-infrastructure-and-defi-protocols-neutron-is-proposed-to-launch-as-a-consumer-chain-secured-by-the-cosmos-hub">P2P is building Neutron, a permission-less zone featuring CosmWasm and full IBC capability (including Interchain Accounts and Queries) to host the Interchain’s infrastructure and DeFi protocols. Neutron is proposed to launch as a Consumer-Chain secured by the Cosmos Hub.</h3><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><p> </p> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>The vision of an ecosystem of the sovereign, interconnected blockchains is coming to life. As the technology underpinning Cosmos matures, adoption is picking up: a recent example, dYdX, a major Ethereum Perp-Trading protocol, announced it was moving to a custom App-Chain to provide better order book trading services to its users.</p><p>Not all protocols need the same degree of customization as dYdX does, though, and most would rather avoid the overhead associated with the construction of a generic zone. For these protocols, there needs to be a secure, well-connected CosmWasm hub where to deploy.</p><p>Currently, such a zone does not exist: no chain is as secure as the Cosmos Hub, and Proposal 69 showed the community’s preference for virtual machines to be released on Consumer-Chains, rather than the Hub itself.</p><p>Today, we are proud to announce we are making the Cosmonauts’ vision a reality: Introducing Neutron, a permission-less, Interchain-Secured CosmWasm smart-contracting environment for the Interchain.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><p> </p> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><h3 id="what-is-neutron">What is Neutron?</h3><p>Neutron is designed to be the premier venue for Interchain Smart-Contract deployment:</p><p>Built with the Cosmos SDK, Neutron features native support for CosmWasm, a virtual machine that allows smart contracts written in Rust, AssemblyScript and other coding languages to run on Cosmos blockchains. The resulting smart-contracts have significant benefits over the release of code into an Appchain’s binary: they benefit from a large library of testing tools, are easier to deploy and upgrade, and can be audited more efficiently.</p><p>To protect its ecosystem from the get go, Neutron would be secured by 175 validators and roughly 186M staked ATOM, worth $1.5Bn at the time of writing. This is made possible by a technology called Interchain Security, which lets validators from a Provider-Chain (e.g. the Cosmos Hub) produce blocks for a Consumer-Chain (e.g. Neutron). Node operators are rewarded with additional native tokens, but can be sanctioned if they fail to validate the Consumer-Chain. In a nutshell, Interchain Security would provide Neutron with the same degree of security as the Cosmos Hub, the 10th largest blockchain by value staked.</p><p>Neutron is Interchain-oriented: it supports the Inter-Blockchain Communication protocol (IBC), Interchain Accounts (ICA), as well as Interchain Queries (ICQ), at launch. Initially, Interchain Queries will be provided by a custom implementation developed by P2P, and upgraded to the official release once it is available. This allows any protocol deploying on Neutron to effortlessly communicate with the rest of IBC, and enables complex operations such as interchain liquid staking or cross-chain collateralization.</p><p>Last but not least, Neutron is permission-less: it is an open platform where anyone can deploy code to join the Interchain’s economy. Neutron is a neutral foundation on which anything can be built. It does not presume the worth of a project, and does not favor the interests of a protocol over that of another. Neutron is a public-good, owned by the community, by its users.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><p> </p> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><h3 id="what-is-p2p">What is P2P?</h3><p><a href="https://p2p.org/">P2P</a> is a professional validator and a non-custodial staking provider which secures more than $1.5Bn in assets across the industry.</p><p>A long-term contributor to the Cosmos ecosystem, P2P has been securing the Cosmos Hub since genesis. It participated in the ATOM fundraiser and regularly open-sources its tooling.</p><p>At P2P, we have a strong conviction in the Interchain’s vision, which is why we help secure sixteen Cosmos networks, including Kava, Agoric, Evmos, Oasis and others.</p><p>P2P is an established player with valuable relationships across the DeFi industry: we see the need for a secure, permission-less, well-connected and reliable smart-contract platform. So, we built Neutron.</p><p>Over the coming weeks and months, we will be sharing more details about Neutron. The future of the Interchain is bright, let’s build it together: join the conversation over on the <a href="https://forum.cosmos.network/t/proposal-bringing-liquid-staking-and-defi-to-the-cosmos-hub-with-interchain-security/">Cosmos Forum</a>.</p>

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