Solana How to stake Solana (SOL)?

<!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><p>Table of Contents</p> <ul> <li><a href="#T1"><span style=" font-size:16px"> What is Solana (SOL) Staking? </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T2"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Why Stake Solana (SOL) with P2P? </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T3"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Solana (SOL) Staking Rewards &amp; Fees<br> </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T4"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Solana (SOL) Warm-up &amp; Reward Distribution Frequency </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T5"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Solana (SOL) Undelegation Period </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T6"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Partially Delegating and Undelegating Solana (SOL) with Solflare </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T7"><span style=" font-size:16px"> How to Track my Solana (SOL) Staking Rewards<br> </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T8"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Monitoring Solana (SOL) Staking Rewards Using Solflare Wallet </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T9"><span style=" font-size:16px"> How Do I Claim Solana (SOL) Staking Rewards? </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T10"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Solana Liquid staking </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T11"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Solflare + Ledger Solana (SOL) Staking Guide </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T12"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Solflare Solana (SOL) Staking Guide </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T13"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Phantom Solana (SOL) Staking Guide </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T14"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Solana (SOL) Staking FAQ </span></a></li> </ul> <h2 id="what-is-solana-sol-staking-a-namet1a">What is Solana (SOL) Staking? <a name="T1"></a></h2> <p>When staking Solana (SOL) you are supporting the network with the additional benefit of compounding your SOL!</p> <p>Staking SOL is the process of holding SOL &quot;stake&quot; to partake and support the operations in the Solana network to receive rewards. In order to be a &quot;Validator&quot; and participate in these operations, one is required to maintain a server running continuously, technological knowhow, experience, and have a significant self-bond (surety bond).<br> This is where P2P Validator comes in, we allow SOL token holders to forget about all the heavy lifting i.e maintenance, surety bonds etc. by &quot;delegating&quot; their holdings to P2P to receive these rewards. We accumulate users' stake and act as a major validation node, receiving and allocating staking rewards between our users pro rata to the delegation.</p> <p>Users that chose to stake with P2P maintain full custody of their SOL at all times and P2P will never have access to them.</p> <h2 id="why-stake-solana-sol-with-p2p-a-namet2a">Why Stake Solana (SOL) with P2P? <a name="T2"></a></h2> <p>P2P is a leading Solana validator with more than 4 million in staked SOL, the highest network reliability &amp; low staking fees. We monitor and maintain Solana nodes to ensure maximum efficiency for SOL stakers.</p> <p>As we are SOL seed investors, it is very important to define the best means of network management and development. Our technical team has been involved in all of the Tour de Sol dry runs with the highest efficiency and has participated in all of TdS and SLP. We are a major player in all networks we support because of our experience, commitments and our reputation. We pay special attention to the process of governance. Our aim is to provide a secure and reliable service at the lowest cost maximising rewards for our delegators.</p> <h3 id="so-why-stake-sol-with-p2p">So why stake SOL with P2P?</h3> <ul> <li>High performance: low skip rate, high uptime</li> <li>Own Skin in the game with 2M+ SOL</li> <li>Secure, non-custodial staking</li> <li>Solana seed investors and contributors.</li> <li>Experienced DevOps’s team (Working with Solana from 2019)</li> <li>Ecosystem contributors (Solana Wormhole Hackaton winners)</li> <li>24/7 monitoring of machine and protocol metrics</li> </ul> <p>P2P Validator provides additional benefits for Stakers with more than 100k SOL, making it the best place for large investors. Get in touch with us here to learn more about how we can address your staking needs.</p> <h2 id="solana-sol-staking-rewards-fees-a-namet3a">Solana (SOL) Staking Rewards &amp; Fees <a name="T3"></a></h2> <p>You will be earning an estimated 7% APR when staking Solana (SOL) with P2P.</p> <p>In order to run the staking infrastructure, we charge a 7% fee on your rewards. The rewards after taking the fee into consideration will therefore be 6.51%.</p> <p>Example:</p> <p>I delegate 1000 SOL to P2P</p> <p>Reward: 10007% = 70 SOL<br> Fee = 707% = 4.9 SOL</p> <p>Estimated balance after 1 year = 1000+70-4.9 = 1065.1 SOL</p> <p>Please keep in mind that the APR specified is approximate and changes along with network conditions.</p> <h2 id="solana-sol-warm-up-reward-distribution-frequency-a-namet4a">Solana (SOL) Warm-up &amp; Reward Distribution Frequency <a name="T4"></a></h2> <p>One epoch in the SOL network lasts approximately 2-3 days.</p> <p>You will start earning rewards once your delegation goes from activating to effective, which takes one full epoch. You will then receive your rewards in the following epoch.</p> <p>Lets assume you select to delegate your SOL in epoch E1:</p> <p>E1: Your SOL is activating (up to approx. 2-3 days)<br> E2: Your SOL is effective (approx. 2-3 days)<br> E3: Receive your rewards for epoch E2</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/1-2.png" alt="Reward frequency"> </p> <p>Once your SOL stake is active, you will receive rewards every epoch. Rewards will automatically be added and compounded to your staked balance.</p> <h2 id="solana-sol-undelegation-period-a-namet5a">Solana (SOL) Undelegation Period <a name="T5"></a></h2> <p>One epoch in the SOL network lasts around 2-3 days.</p> <p>It takes one full epoch to deactivate your SOL delegation - once finished you will be able to withdraw it. This will include your original stake and any rewards you earned.</p> <p>Lets assume you select to undelegate your SOL in epoch E1:</p> <p>E1: Will start deactivating your Stake.<br> E2: Stake is undelegated and is available to withdaw.</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/2-2.png" alt="Undelegation Period"> </p> <h2 id="partially-delegating-and-undelegating-solana-sol-with-solflare-a-namet6a">Partially Delegating and Undelegating Solana (SOL) with Solflare <a name="T6"></a></h2> <h3 id="main-authority-and-staking-accounts">Main Authority and Staking accounts</h3> <p>In Solflare you have a main authority address where you can transfer SOL to and from your staking account(s).</p> <p>Main authority account can be found on your &quot;Portfolio page&quot;.</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image1.png" alt="Main Authority account"> </p> <p>You cannot transfer SOL directly from one staking account to another without first going through your main authority address. Staking accounts are used in order to delegate your SOL to validators.</p> <p>Staking accounts can be found on your &quot;Staking page&quot;. In the image below you can see that I have created three staking accounts. Two are activating (meaning my delegation transaction has been confirmed buy my stake is in the warming up period), and one is inactive (not staking).</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image7.png" alt="Staking accounts"> </p> <p>Only the full amount in a staking account can be delegated or undelegated. IE within one staking account, you will not be able to input a specific amount to partially delegate or undelegate. Furthermore, delegating and undelegating have warm-up and cool-down periods respectively. For these two reasons, it is important to understand the options available to partially undelegate your SOL with staking accounts to avoid waiting.</p> <p>For example if you have 100 SOL being delegated in a staking account and you want to undelegate and withdraw 50 SOL, it would be a waste of time to undelegate 100 SOL and wait for the cool down, withdraw 50 SOL out of your account, and then delegate 50 SOL again and wait for the warm-up. During the warm-up period you will not be earning rewards.</p> <p>Fortunately, Solflare has created the option to split a staking account, which provides a solution to partially delegate or undelegate your SOL without wasting time and rewards.</p> <h3 id="splitting-accounts">Splitting accounts</h3> <p>You can only delegate or undelegate the full amount - as opposed to a partial amount - in a staking account. To delegate or undelegate a partial amount you have the option to &quot;split&quot; your staking account. This will take a staking account and it will split it into two seperate ones, with the new account being transferred the split amount of SOL. Both accounts will keep the same status as it had before (delegating, activating, or inactive).</p> <ol> <li>To find the split function, first select your account and then &quot;SPLIT&quot;.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image24.png" alt="Split Solflare account"> </p> <ol start="2"> <li>Input the amount that you would like to move out of your staking account into the new one.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image10.png" alt="Split amount"> </p> <ol start="3"> <li> <p>Confirm the transaction.</p> </li> <li> <p>Once your new staking account has been created with the split amount, you can undelegate or delegate the SOL there.</p> </li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image13.png" alt="Delegate/Undelegate SOL"> </p> <p>You will then have to wait the cooldown period before your funds are available to withdraw.</p> <h2 id="how-to-track-my-solana-sol-staking-rewards-a-namet7a">How to Track my Solana (SOL) Staking Rewards <a name="T7"></a></h2> <p>To track your rewards you can use the Solana beach explorer. This explorer allows you to track any transactions made on any address on the Solana blockchain.</p> <p>Note that some wallets, like Solflare, have a table of your staking rewards integrated in their wallet already (more info here). However, this guide will allow anyone to be able to track their SOL rewards regardless of which wallet provider they use and which validator they selected to stake with.</p> <h3 id="track-your-rewards">Track your rewards</h3> <p>First you will need to find your staking accounts address to input into the Solana beach explorer. It will be a series of 44 characters and numbers.</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image8.png" alt="Solana beach"> </p> <p>Once you have searched for your staking accounts address, scroll down and select &quot;Stake Rewards&quot;. Here you will be provided a table with your rewards for each epoch.</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image2.png" alt="Stake rewards"> </p> <p>That's it! Remember that if you have any questions along the way or would like to share some feedback, please dont hesitate to contact us as we will be more than happy to help.</p> <h2 id="monitoring-solana-sol-staking-rewards-using-solflare-wallet-a-namet8a">Monitoring Solana (SOL) Staking Rewards Using Solflare Wallet <a name="T8"></a></h2> <p>You can track the staking rewards on your Solflare staking account. In order to do so, simply go to the staking page on Solflare and select the staking account address you are interested in.</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image18.png" alt="Stake Solflare"> </p> <p>Details will appear, showing your reward payouts for each epoch that you were actively delegating.</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image17.png" alt="Reward payouts"> </p> <p>For all past epochs, you will be able to view:</p> <ul> <li>Epoch</li> <li>Amount of rewards earned</li> <li>Balance update</li> <li>APR</li> <li>Commission charged</li> <li>Date the reward was received</li> </ul> <h2 id="how-do-i-claim-solana-sol-staking-rewards-a-namet9a">How Do I Claim Solana (SOL) Staking Rewards? <a name="T9"></a></h2> <p>One epoch in Solana lasts approximately 2-3 days.</p> <p>With your effective staked SOL, you will receive rewards every 2-3 days and it will automatically be added and compounded to your staked amount.</p> <p>If you want to withdraw your rewards, you will have to first undelegate your stake.</p> <h2 id="solana-liquid-staking-a-namet10a">Solana Liquid staking <a name="T10"></a></h2> <p>The pillar of P2P's core principals has since the beginning been decentralization. We believe that cryptocurrencies and the whole emerging industry surrounding it was built upon this.</p> <p>We believe in the benefits and the work being done on liquid staking solutions for this emerging industry and this is why we are proud to be not only one of the validators for LIDO's liquid Solana staking but also in charge of it's development.</p> <p>Liquid staking is a great way to build and develop new opportunities for the cryptocurrency industry to grow on both the staking and DeFI sectors.</p> <h2 id="solflare-ledger-solana-sol-staking-guide-a-namet11a">Solflare + Ledger Solana (SOL) Staking Guide <a name="T11"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><!--kg-card-begin: html--><p align="center"> <iframe width="720" height="405" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/Qc__wcHApIg" title="YouTube video player" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe> </p><!--kg-card-end: html--><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="solflare-solana-sol-staking-guide-a-namet12a">Solflare Solana (SOL) Staking Guide <a name="T12"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><!--kg-card-begin: html--><p align="center"> <iframe width="720" height="405" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/bJzPfYAIiNk" title="YouTube video player" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe> </p><!--kg-card-end: html--><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><p>Before starting you will have to own some SOL - you can purchase it on multiple <a href="https://coinmarketcap.com/rankings/exchanges/">cryptocurrency exchanges</a>.</p> <h3 id="create-solflare-wallet">Create Solflare wallet</h3> <ol> <li>To create a wallet select &quot;Access&quot; on the Solflare page.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image30.png" alt="Solflare"> </p> <ol start="2"> <li>Then select &quot;Create a new wallet&quot;.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image3.png" alt="Create new wallet"> </p> <ol start="3"> <li>Create a password that you will use to enter your wallet and to submit transactions. Select &quot;Next&quot; to proceed.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image19.png" alt="Create password"> </p> <ol start="4"> <li>Save your Mnemonic phrase somewhere secure! You will need this to recover your account to enter it from a new device or even from a new account on a browser, or potentially after a browser upgrade. If you lose it, you will lose access to your funds! Do not share this Mnemonic phrase with anyone, anyone who has access to it will have access to your funds!</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image6.png" alt="Save Mnemonic phrase"> </p> <ol start="5"> <li>Verify your Mnemonic phrase by typing it back in. Once completed, select &quot;Verify&quot;.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image4.png" alt="Verify Mnemonic phrase"> </p> <ol start="6"> <li>That's it your wallet has been created! After successfully completing the steps above, you will find yourself in the main menu of Solflare where you will find information about your wallet account address.</li> </ol> <h3 id="transfer-sol-to-your-wallet">Transfer SOL to your wallet</h3> <ol> <li>To find your receiving address select &quot;Receive&quot;.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image12.png" alt="Receive Address"> </p> <ol start="2"> <li>A pop up window will appear with your Solflare main authority address, and alternatively a QR code. Use this receiving address to send your SOL to your Solflare wallet.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image35.png" alt="Receive SOL"> </p> <p>Once you have transferred funds into your main authority wallet, you are now ready to start Staking!</p> <h3 id="staking-solana">Staking Solana</h3> <ol> <li>To start staking, you must first go to the staking section of the wallet by selecting &quot;Staking&quot; on the top of the page. You will then be given three options, Liquid SOL Staking, Native SOL Staking, and SLRS Staking. Select &quot;Native SOL Staking&quot;. You can find more information about Liquid SOL Staking on Lido's SOL Page. Lastly select &quot;Start Staking&quot;.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image37.png" alt="Staking SOL"> </p> <ol start="2"> <li>A pop up window will appear. Input the amount you wish to stake and the validator you wish to stake with. Leave some SOL in your wallet to pay for transaction fees. Since they are very low at Solana, only a small amount is required.</li> </ol> <p>To find P2P Validator type it in the search bar. Select &quot;Stake&quot; to proceed.</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image29.png" alt="Select P2P Validator"> </p> <ol start="3"> <li>You will then be prompted to enter your password one last time for security reasons.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image33.png" alt="Enter password"> </p> <ol start="4"> <li>Once your delegation transaction has been confirmed, you will see that your stake is activating. For more information on when you will start receiving rewards please refer to our SOL Warm-Up article.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image21.png" alt="Confirm delegation"> </p> <p>That's it! You are now delegating your SOL to P2P Validator. Note that your SOL are still fully in your custody, but you are delegating them to P2P to help us partake in network activities and you will be rewarded for your contribution!</p> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="phantom-solana-sol-staking-guide-a-namet13a">Phantom Solana (SOL) Staking Guide <a name="T13"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><!--kg-card-begin: html--><p align="center"> <iframe width="720" height="405" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/TXZF78L-wPg" title="YouTube video player" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe> </p><!--kg-card-end: html--><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><p>Before starting you will have to own some SOL - you can purchase it on multiple <a href="https://coinmarketcap.com/rankings/exchanges/">cryptocurrency exchanges</a>.</p> <h3 id="create-phantom-wallet-and-transfer-sol-to-it">Create Phantom Wallet and transfer SOL to it.</h3> <ol> <li>To start, you will want to download the Phantom extension on their <a href="https://phantom.app/">page</a>.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image28.png" alt="Download phantom wallet"> </p> <ol start="2"> <li>If the wallet page does not open up automatically after downloaded, you should select Phantom in your list of extensions. If you are using Google chrome, you can find your extension in the top right of the page.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image9.png" alt="Phantom wallet extension"> </p> <ol start="3"> <li>To create a wallet select &quot;Create New Wallet&quot;</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image31.png" alt="Create new Phantom wallet"> </p> <ol start="4"> <li>You will first be asked to save your Secrete Recovery Phrase. Save it somewhere secure! You will need this to recover your account to enter it from a new device or even from a new account on a browser, or potentially after a browser upgrade. If you lose it, you will lose access to your funds! Do not share this Secret Recovery Phrase with anyone, anyone who has access to it will have access to your funds!</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image27.png" alt="Save Secret Recovery Phrase"> </p> <ol start="5"> <li>Create a password that you will use to enter your wallet when you are logging in from the same device. Select &quot;Save&quot; to proceed.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image25.png" alt="Create a password for Phantom Wallet"> </p> <ol start="6"> <li>Once you have saved your password and proceeded to the next stages, you will have successfully created your wallet!</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image32.png" alt="Successfully create phantom wallet"> </p> <p>7.You will then want to transfer your SOL into your Phantom wallet where you will have fully custody of your SOL. To find your receiving address select &quot;Receive&quot;.</p> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image5.png" alt="Receive SOL"> </p> <ol start="8"> <li>To find you wallet address select &quot;Send from wallet / Exchange&quot; or alternatively you can Deposit SOL straight from FTX.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image14.png" alt="Find Phantom Wallet Address"> </p> <ol start="9"> <li>Phantom will provide you with a QR code as well as a button to copy your wallet address. You can use this receiving address to send your SOL to your Phantom wallet.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image20.png" alt="Receive SOL on Phantom"> </p> <p>Once you have transferred funds into you main authority wallet, you are now ready to start Staking!</p> <h3 id="staking-solana">Staking Solana</h3> <ol> <li>To start start staking go back to the main page of your wallet and select Solana.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image22.png" alt="Start Staking SOL on Phantom Wallet"> </p> <ol start="2"> <li>Select &quot;Start earning SOL&quot;.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image26.png" alt="Start Earning SOL"> </p> <ol start="3"> <li>To find P2P Validator type it in the search bar. Select it to proceed.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image36.png" alt="Find P2P Validator"> </p> <ol start="4"> <li>Enter the amount you wish to stake and select &quot;Stake&quot; to send out the delegation transaction.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image23.png" alt="Enter SOL Staking Amount"> </p> <ol start="5"> <li>Phantom will create a separate staking account for your stake and then will delegate it to P2P Validator.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image15.png" alt="Staking Account"> </p> <ol start="6"> <li>Once you see this message, your delegation transaction has now successfully been sent out!</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image38.png" alt="SOL Staked"> </p> <ol start="7"> <li>You will see that your stake is activating. For more information on when you will start receiving rewards please refer to our SOL Warm-Up article.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2022/09/image11.png" alt="SOL Stake Activating"> </p> <p>That's it! You are now delegating your SOL to P2P Validator. Note that your SOL are still fully in your custody, but you are delegating them to P2P to help us partake in network activities and you will be rewarded for your contribution!</p> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="solana-sol-staking-faq-a-namet14a">Solana (SOL) Staking FAQ <a name="T14"></a></h2> <h3 id="what-is-solana">What is Solana?</h3> <p>Solana is a high-performance permissionless blockchain solving scalability issues without sharding and suitable for decentralized applications requiring high throughput.</p> <h3 id="what-is-the-solana-staking-apr">What is the Solana staking APR?</h3> <p>The Solana staking reward is approximately 7%. More info here.</p> <h3 id="how-often-are-staking-rewards-distributed">How often are staking rewards distributed?</h3> <p>Solana staking rewards are paid out to stakers approximately every epoch (2-3 days). More info here.</p> <h3 id="is-there-an-unstaking-period">Is there an unstaking period?</h3> <p>It can take up to 3 days for your SOL tokens to be transferable. More info here.</p> <h3 id="is-there-a-slashing-risk-for-validators">Is there a slashing risk for validators?</h3> <p>There is currently no slashing risk for Solana validators.</p> <h3 id="is-there-a-minimum-staking-amount-for-solana">Is there a minimum staking amount for Solana?</h3> <p>There is no minimum staking amount for SOL stakers.</p> <h3 id="do-staking-rewards-compound">Do staking rewards compound?</h3> <p>Yes, Solana staking rewards are compounded automatically.</p> <h3 id="what-is-the-solana-inflation-rate">What is the Solana inflation rate?</h3> <p>The Solana network inflation rate is approximately 8% per year.</p> <!--kg-card-end: markdown-->

P2P Validator

from p2p validator

Solana Lido on Solana: Validator's Set Vision

<p>Lido applies the same mission to all blockchains they participate in - to make staking simple, secure, and decentralized.  Each of the networks has its own specifics when it comes to "what a good validator set means”.</p><p>We propose a new way of developing the Lido validator's set on Solana and in our opinion, a sustainable and solid set should follow 3 principles:</p><p><strong>1. Validator set should be decentralized</strong></p><p>According to <a href="https://solanabeach.io/validators">Solana Beach</a>, there are currently 1,788 validators on Solana, giving the network a Nakamoto Coefficient of 25. This means that the top 25 validators control enough staked Solana to collude and attack the network. The<a href="https://spl.solana.com/stake-pool"> staking pool program</a> emerged with the goal to redistribute the stakes more evenly across the network. In our view, to create a decentralized set, we must adhere to the following rules:</p><ul><li>Increase the number of independent entities that create and maintain infrastructure for the network.</li><li>Increase censorship resistance by reducing the concentration of stake in the same data centers and jurisdictions.</li><li>Not distribute stake to the superminority group of validators.</li></ul><p>To make the Lido on Solana validator set more decentralized we plan to:</p><ul><li>Not add validators nodes from the superminority group to the Lido validator set</li><li>Increase the number of distributed nodes in the pool by removing barriers in the form of 100% commission nodes.</li><li>Bring in validators from other ecosystems and non-crypto projects.</li><li>Train new operators to configure and run nodes.</li><li>Assist validators with server configuration and data center location.</li><li>Onboard independent validators into the Solana cluster and Lido pool</li></ul><p><strong>2.</strong> <strong><strong>The set must be attractive for validators</strong></strong></p><p>To ensure a highly available and secure staking infrastructure, it is critical to consider the long-term sustainability of the operator and the ability to fund new equipment. Operators are responsible for managing risks, maintaining their node, ensuring the highest uptime possible, troubleshooting errors. To make the set more attractive to validators, we must adhere to the following rules:</p><ul><li>Operators must earn well enough to build a profitable, reliable staking business.</li><li>Validator nodes must be able to participate in subsidy programs (ex. SFDP)</li><li>Operators should receive marketing support to attract stakes.</li></ul><p>To make the Lido on Solana validator set more attractive to validators, we will do the following:</p><ul><li>Change the <a href="https://github.com/ChorusOne/solido">smart contract</a> by removing 100% of nodes and adding the ability to use a public node in a cluster to participate in the Lido program</li><li>Create a P&amp;L tool to calculate validator yield and share it with the community.</li><li>Provide marketing support to validators in Lido’s set to increase the stake on their public node and help to build a profitable staking business.</li></ul><p><strong>3. <strong>The validator set has to bring value to the network</strong></strong></p><p>Validator performance metrics are, in our opinion, one of the most important criteria for developing the Solana ecosystem. The faster, cheaper, and more sustainable the network, the easier it is to attract investments, partners, and NFT/DeFi/P2E project developers, leading to the development of a sustainable community and product ecosystem.  For DeFi users, speed of transactions is important; for oracles, the ability to quickly provide more detailed data on a large number of quotes; for developers, a better user experience; for stakers, greater rewards on average and higher SOL price growth potential<strong>.</strong></p><p>To make the set more productive and sustainable the following rules should be adhered to:</p><ul><li>Operators must understand the value of metrics and be able to compare their performance with the best on the network</li><li>Operators must be notified about software updates</li><li>Operators must understand how to update without downtime</li></ul><p>To make the Lido on Solana validator set more stable and productive, we will do the following:</p><ul><li>Publish our vision of "good validator" performance metrics</li><li>Make a public dashboard displaying validator metrics</li><li>Make a system of alerts for problems with validator performance in the pool</li><li>Conduct education and share best practices for validator management in Solana</li></ul><h2 id="conclusion">Conclusion</h2><p>There are ~384.5M SOL staked on the Solana network, of which only ~9.7M SOL is distributed among various staking pools. P2P has partnered with Lido and stSOL since their launch as a validator and has been involved in the development of TVL in collaboration with Lido through incentives, integrations, and more. We see great potential for the development of liquid staking, which will increase economic activity and the speed of the economy in a decentralized network.  </p><p>Three key principles will form the basis of our new strategy:</p><ul><li>Truly decentralize the validator network by simplifying entry and adding validators from other ecosystems.</li><li>Make the network economically attractive for validators by dropping 100% nodes and marketing support from Lido</li><li>Ensure that the validator set works better for the network to ensure transactions are passed and various applications are running on the network. </li></ul><p>If you have ideas or suggestions for achieving our principles, we are always open to community feedback and consider it very important.</p><p>Join the new validator set! Together we will make Solana even more decentralized and sustainable!</p><p><br></p><p><br></p>

Pavel Pavlov

from p2p validator

Lido, Solana P2P to Run Lido on Solana

<p><br>On April 11, P2P took ownership of Lido on Solana becoming the new team in charge of its growth and development, with the goal to build-out the project in alignment with Lido’s, Solana’s and P2P’s values. <br><br>Liquid Solana Staking was launched on Lido in September 2021 with the collaboration of Chorus One as an initiative to grow the presence of Lido across staking networks. Thanks to the members involved, the project has reached 3,000,000+ SOL staked and achieved numerous stSOL integrations. P2P has been involved since the beginning of the year, participating in boosting TVL in collaboration with Lido through their incentivization program, Liquidity Providers launches and Protocols integrations.</p><p>Due to some organisational changes at Chorus One, a <a href="https://research.lido.fi/t/lido-on-solana-proposed-transition-from-chorus-one-to-p2p/1887">proposal was passed</a> to transfer the ownership of Lido on Solana to P2P. <br><br>“We are incredibly grateful to Chorus One for all their hard work on the development and initial launch of the project, they have laid a solid foundation for us to grow its success and presence within the flourishing Solana ecosystem.” - <strong><em>Vasiliy Shapovalov, CTO at P2P</em></strong><br><br>The exact terms and timelines of the transition to P2P can be found here: <a href="https://research.lido.fi/t/lido-on-solana-proposed-transition-from-chorus-one-to-p2p/1887">Lido on Solana - Proposed Transition from Chorus One to P2P.</a><br><br>Lots of work still needs to be done. Solana was among the networks with the highest growth in 2021 (going up to 6th in market cap) and the requirements and standards of the community are high.<br><br><em>“P2P Team has outstanding staking expertise in Solana. We will do our best to make Lido on Solana highly valuable for the ecosystem by improving validator conditions and standards, driving the DeFi ecosystem and increasing new users growth” </em><br>- <em><strong>Nikolai Abeliashev, Product Manager for Lido on Solana </strong></em><br><br>P2P Validator  have cemented themselves as one of the pillars of the staking community, working closely with each network to achieve maximum growth.<br></p><h2 id="plan-to-be-executed"><strong>Plan to be executed</strong></h2><p><br>As an initiative to improve Solana’s network performance &amp; security, and to empower the community, P2P plans to focus on improving Solana Network decentralisation by bringing new node operators and increasing the number of validators part of the Supermajority (a large group of validators that together control 66.66% of the total stake) into Solana on Lido’s set. The decision to add new node operators will be based on validator historic performance (parameters to be annotated soon), ecosystem participation and general validating experience purchased. Through educational programs and clear performance metrics, P2P will ensure a high standard of operations that will be available on a public dashboard with open validator performance data. Lastly, by providing clear commission instructions and by balancing the number of validators and stakes in the pool, P2P plans to fairly distribute the profitability for validators. <br><br>Further, with $300+ million in staked SOL, Lido on Solana can expand its presence within the <a href="https://solana.lido.fi/defi">Solana Defi Community</a> further through unique integrations with value-adding protocols, wallets and dapps, incentivisation programs and community initiatives.</p><p>A dedicated team has been set up to carry out the above plan and ensure what was promised, is delivered.<br><br>With Lido on Solana under new ownership, exciting times are ahead for the project.  Quality &amp; performance improvements, transparency of validation, boosting DeFi economics, and of course attracting more users are all in this year's goals.</p><h2 id="what-is-sol-liquid-staking"><br><strong>What is SOL liquid staking?</strong></h2><p><br>Liquid staking allows participants to earn staking rewards without the need to lock their assets or the need to maintain the infrastructure required.</p><p>stSOl is Lido’s liquid staking token for Solana. With it users can earn staking rewards while being able to participate in DeFi protocols at the same time. stSOL can also be exchanged at any time for SOL to let users instantly unstake their tokens without the need to wait for the cooldown. Unstaking directly from Lido is still possible but you are subject to the 3 day cooldown before you get access to your tokens.</p><p>stSOL is a wrapped token, this means that when staking with LIDO your staking rewards accrue to the wrapper and the value of stSOL increases over time. The current exchange rate of stSOL - SOl can be found in the <a href="https://solana.lido.fi/">staking page</a> at all times.</p><p>stSOL can be used in a variety of expanding DeFI protocols across the Solana ecosystem. A list of guides for different protocols can be found <a href="https://help.lido.fi/en/collections/3275637-liquid-staking-on-solana">here</a>. With liquid staking you can earn additional income on your tokens, while still earning staking rewards. For example, you can provide liquidity on a stSOL - SOL trading pair to earn fees from the pool on top of the staking rewards. Lido on Solana are looking to expand the number of protocols and use cases for stSOL so keep an eye out for new developments on their social media channels.</p><div class="kg-card kg-button-card kg-align-center"><a href="https://lido.fi/solana" class="kg-btn kg-btn-accent">Get started by visiting Lido on Solana! </a></div><p></p><h2 id="about-p2p-validator"><strong>About P2P Validator </strong></h2><p><br>P2P Validator began in 2018 with a mission to positively influence the development of POS technologies. Since our launch we have developed to become one of the largest staking service providers with more than 25,000 investors across 25+ different networks. We work closely with each network we support to push the developments of each project to new limits. We are firm believers in the value of decentralisation and participate in active governance across all supported networks to ensure the interests of the community are supported. We were honoured to be chosen as one of the validators for networks like Solana, Cosmos and Polkadot since the genesis block, a feat that shows the vote of confidence on P2P's ability to keep networks secure.</p><p>Beginning as seed investors and validating from the genesis block, we have shown tremendous support to the Solana ecosystem since day one and are now trusted with over $400m under management. Our proficiency is shown not only by our excellent validating track record &amp; our published research papers written on network performance (<a href="https://www.stakingrewards.com/journal/solana-validators-performance-research-report-part-1-downtime-analysis/">Downtime</a>, <a href="https://www.stakingrewards.com/journal/solana-validators-performance-research-report-part-2-skip-rate-analysis/">Skip Rate</a>, more to come) to improve the network health and development, but also by our involvement across projects including <a href="https://portalbridge.com/#/transfer">Wormhole Bridge,</a> <a href="https://pyth.network/">Pyth</a>, and <a href="https://neon-labs.org/">Neon EVM</a> to help build Solana’s network infrastructure.</p><hr><p>If you have any questions, feel free to join our<a href="https://t.me/P2Pstaking"> Telegram chat</a>, we are always open for communication.<br><br><br><br><br></p>

Romain Van Der Cam

from p2p validator

Solana Solana Validators Performance Research, part 1: Downtime Analysis

<p>Welcome to the first article in the series of publications on the Solana validators performance research by P2P Validator. In our opinion, performance of the Solana network validators is one of the most important aspects which determine the network growth and sustainability. Our team has done a deep dive into this topic and we want to share insights gained to benefit the Solana community. </p><p>The research is devoted to the analysis of the two most important metrics reflecting Solana network validators’ performance: downtime duration (node delinquency/unavailability duration) and skip rate (measuring how frequently a node fails to produce a transaction block which is subsequently confirmed by consensus on the network). </p><p>In this article we reveal the first part of the research findings regarding analysis of downtime. You can find <a href="https://www.stakingrewards.com/journal/solana-validators-performance-research-report-part-2-skip-rate-analysis/">Part 2 here</a>, covering block skip rate analysis results. </p><h2 id="table-of-contents">Table of contents</h2><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><ul> <li><a href="#preface">Preface</a></li> <li><a href="#introduction">Introduction</a></li> <li><a href="#solana-validators-downtime">Solana validators downtime</a></li> <li><a href="#factors-influencing-downtime-duration">Factors influencing downtime duration</a></li> <li><a href="#downtime-data-analysis">Downtime data analysis</a></li> <li><a href="#nodes-downtime-duration-by-epochs">Nodes downtime duration by epochs</a></li> <li><a href="#supermajority-and-superminority-validators-comparison">Supermajority and superminority validators comparison</a></li> <li><a href="#downtime-duration-distribution-for-updates-and-other-causes">Downtime duration distribution for updates and other causes</a></li> <li><a href="#average-update-time-by-solana-software-versions">Average update time by Solana software versions</a></li> <li><a href="#summary">Summary</a></li> <li><a href="#acknowledgements">Acknowledgements</a></li> <li><a href="#disclaimer">Disclaimer</a></li> <li><a href="#sources-of-data">Sources of data</a></li> </ul> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><h2 id="preface">Preface</h2><p>All data used for analysis in the research were obtained from publicly available sources such as Solana JSON RPC API, Solanabeach API, Validators.app API and are relevant for Mainnet beta epochs №194-236 unless another epoch or time period is explicitly specified.</p><h2 id="introduction">Introduction</h2><p>Solana is a relatively new (went live in March 2020) public high-performance distributed blockchain platform curated by Solana Foundation (non-profit organization headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland) along with professional blockchain developers, organizations and individuals running validator and RPC nodes and DevOps specialists from all over the world who are dedicated to the decentralization, growth, and security of the Solana network.</p><p>Solana is one of blockchains that aims to be fast and scalable, without compromising its security or decentralization. Its theoretical throughput limit of 50k transactions per second (TPS) which is twice more than VISA’s limit, which means it can be used for many real-time applications in various business areas. Solana mainnet has already handled more than 35 billion transactions with current throughput exceeding 2000 TPS (see Figure 1) due to high demand for its capabilities and various use cases including: ultra-fast on-chain payments, token creation and distribution, staking through delegation to network validators, smart-contracts, NFTs issuance and trading. Solana ecosystem also provides many different DeFi services such as decentralized exchange, token swaps, liquidity farming and bridging ensuring cross-chain interoperability with other blockchains.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/VYf4yl-UeoEH2-bfH8v7ACSsiTxl2n6d4TM46f_sAKeOUwW_rRCkSelwlOGzzqb9uTXHyj5YQKAK-Wk3XSZDJZLg5EK94MuogDL1J-DWXv5oW8awbwR-tptoGxwmCvY2LYTYlg3L" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy"><figcaption><em>Figure 1. Solana’s TPS on 27.10.2021 (see <a href="https://explorer.solana.com/">explorer.solana.com</a> for live data).</em></figcaption></figure><p></p><p>There are currently more than 1000 independent validators and 800 RPC nodes (see Figure 2) which comprise a physical layer for above mentioned functionality while making the network highly secure and decentralized. Each validator supports the network's operation by providing <a href="https://docs.solana.com/running-validator/validator-reqs">high-end hardware resources</a> and properly configuring their systems to keep the network running as fast and smooth as possible.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/78LCSkFGLBansse0T67-5AmbeRFdQkV4tnzyPE06EXNouo_Kr28DMAXKOv7DiFUo-7m05j0ntYPc0RbblbubK4aLwMSUfr3jgFb17XdETt55bJar-v6s19xi2HrZsfJCpkTQK0jq" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy"><figcaption><em>Figure 2. Solana validator nodes map (see <a href="https://solanabeach.io/">https://solanabeach.io/</a> for live data).</em></figcaption></figure><p></p><p>Validators receive SOL tokens from stakers, participate in the consensus-based process of transactions validation, get rewards proportional to delegated stake amount and distribute these rewards to stakers (proportionally to staked shares) charging a variable commission. The more stake is delegated to a validator, the more this validator (and its delegators) earns and is more frequently chosen to process new transactions on the ledger and, thus, exposed to greater hardware and network load. Thus, on the one hand, validators are economically motivated to keep their hardware and software running without interruptions, and, on the other, to timely update Solana software and to improve their nodes and network connection as their stake and the Solana network load increase.</p><h1 id="solana-validators-downtime">Solana validators downtime</h1><p>It is normal for a node to be temporarily unavailable/offline sometimes as every technical system needs periodic maintenance and reconfiguration. Typical reasons for server unavailability are usually quite simple such as planned reboot to update host configuration or software, an emergency (power outage), network problems in the data center or at the provider.</p><p>The longer a node is unavailable, the fewer staking rewards and transaction fees it receives. Staking rewards are paid proportionally to node’s vote transactions count which it cannot post if it is offline or functioning incorrectly. Validator  downtime negatively affects its delegates’ rewards, which is why one should consider checking validator recent downtime duration history before delegating to it.</p><p>During periods of downtime an unavailable validator is assigned the “delinquent” status which can be checked using Solana CLI <em>solana validators</em> command or by parsing corresponding json response (<em>solana --output json validators</em>). By constantly fetching statuses of all validators on the network it is possible to measure delinquency periods durations which is a good approximation for downtime duration for further quantitative analysis. The downtime data analyzed is available through the <a href="https://redash.p2p.org/public/dashboards/ZEW9RvuBXPdYHUU5aC7DfVjY8DJaXQrGenG2HUmo?org_slug=default">public Redash dashboard</a>.</p><h2 id="factors-influencing-downtime-duration">Factors influencing downtime duration</h2><p>There are many factors influencing downtime duration and these are typical ones:</p><ul><li>node operator reaction time (node operators may or may not use specialized monitoring and alerting systems);</li><li>node operator skill (imagine the difference between inexperienced enthusiasts and mature professionals who are working with such high-load systems for years);</li><li>time to repair breakdowns in the power grid or communication network (which does not depend on a node operator);</li><li>time needed to debug and fix specific configuration errors or replace hardware parts;</li><li>complexity and duration of software update (i.e., different Solana versions take different time to install), node startup duration, etc.</li></ul><p>Despite most of these factors can not be measured directly, we have managed to collect and analyse some important on-chain data related to the topic, which allowed to quantitatively describe several aspects regarding Solana network nodes unavailability such as downtime duration statistics over time, its variability across nodes as well as duration of node software updates.</p><h2 id="downtime-data-analysis">Downtime data analysis</h2><p>Here we illustrate retrospective downtime statistics of Solana nodes that were active in the period from epoch №209 (5th of August, 2021) to epoch №236 (17th of October, 2021). Historical data allow to reveal trends in the dynamics of downtime making it easier to understand the normal behavior of the metric as well as to identify abnormal fluctuations.</p><h3 id="nodes-downtime-duration-by-epochs">Nodes downtime duration by epochs</h3><p>The descriptive statistics for downtime duration by epochs are presented in the Figure 3 below. Quantile values of 5%- and 95%-level reflect the maximum downtime among the top 5 and top 95 percent of validators, respectively, for each epoch. Average downtime is the simple arithmetic mean and median defines a downtime duration which divides the top 50 and worst 50 percent of validators.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/aQCsTug3snvF4n1VUW3AXUBYvC6FytRw5Q2ICuSuMsZMr8RGjpyI-ylB6CZK8qU8WR5EKHnBNMPfMBsV6CXTN7UM_sMO3k_QPjq5JhoVDPJW0dEU6FTJUr0skrGCbjcKdpVQAB5m" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy"><figcaption><em>Figure 3. Downtime mean (cyan line), median (lilac), 5%-quantile (red), 95%-quantile (green) and its actual values for each node (black transparent dots) over epochs.</em></figcaption></figure><p><br>As can be seen from the chart above, <strong>typical average downtime duration for a node is around 1.5 hours</strong>, which is quite low, while <strong>median downtime duration is almost always zero</strong> (which means that most nodes usually don’t experience shutdowns). Also there were several epochs (№214, 223 and 234) with high downtime duration upticks mainly due to simultaneous upgrades of Solana software version. Epoch 223 is especially interesting as it is known that on 14 of September, 2021, the Solana network experienced a <a href="https://jumpcrypto.com/reflections-on-the-sept-14-solana-outage/">severe overload which led to the network halt</a>, and after a successful network restart almost all the nodes had to update to a new Solana version with the necessary fixes.</p><h3 id="dispersion-of-downtime-duration">Dispersion of downtime duration</h3><p>As many factors affect downtime duration, it varies greatly across validators within the same epoch. The dispersion measures indicate the metric’s spread magnitude which is slightly changing over time as shown in Figure 4.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/pYyFq6WJf7ZUvigy7YMAFPcT0e9OISiG4_mNYWZLs-N_c7vUrs09jUb9wtgCxgH4OqNIAppwlrjif3vupB0ZWDAtSc2mv8gI8ixFAkvcVVYs859GnOtTiXvGN5SQSDjPA2ql9Hjv" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy"><figcaption><em>Figure 4. Measures of dispersion of downtime duration over time: interquartile range (red line) representing difference between 25%- and 75%-quantiles of the metric and standard deviation (cyan) representing average deviation from mean.</em></figcaption></figure><p><br>It can be seen from the chart above that downtime duration dispersion across validator nodes is dropping slightly over time which indicates that validators, on average, have both lower downtime durations and lower deviations of the metric from the mean.</p><h3 id="supermajority-and-superminority-validators-comparison">Supermajority and superminority validators comparison</h3><p>Since the leading validators with a large stake amount take much more financial risks compared to the smaller ones, their nodes' technical characteristics are far better than of the majority. Therefore, it makes sense to compare performance of the superminority set of validators (the minimal set of validators that together control more than 33.33% of the total stake) with the rest falling into the supermajority set with 66.66% of total stake (see Figure 5).</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/pXXTHF4CC5szdub_hF8cYrIu_BpisJxblMbSODq5p4IWU7gdhGI5XXOyDGOLbATya7vLvaH0rDLWXJsLZY_D1OiAD9MpKSRR3ZkrB_oXBSagqZKNeAxlE1dik8nVo9moZvIN3aC6" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy"><figcaption><em>Figure 5. Average downtime duration by epochs for superminority validators set (blue line), supermajority (green) and P2P Validator (red).</em></figcaption></figure><p><br>As the charts above represent, the supermajority is usually much worse in terms of average downtime duration, especially after epoch №220, especially during hard times like epoch №223, when the Solana network halted and most validators had to perform major software updates.</p><p>In contrast, superminority validators (especially P2P Validator) have an average downtime duration and an average number of downtimes (see Figure 6 below) that are much lower than for the supermajority, and there is a much smaller probability that a validator from the superminority set is offline for more than 5% of total epoch duration (see Figure 7 below).</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/vUWC-dbCA4C7q5xb2U29_ch4guExlxtY1-5QMdK8vTS9Ek_3lpPFnPFqV12qM2u8ErrpDUtgMfD4333AjhqiP1cPMqHfxGfZpaI-AmZGitsKPgLKJz5_dvesr5OMehcU1Mljfhvi" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy"><figcaption><em>Figure 6. Average number of downtimes over epochs №209-236 for the superminority (cyan line) and supermajority set of validators (red).</em></figcaption></figure><p></p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/ZQeA4Y0DFh4ontzVLbMRC2MNw_6Dh1_7oe8is52gxvxSWfROVrXbE2PjzlrbIOoT-hVp8pu9CkfuyhAH9ovBd2dUq1-yLrexjo2xwOKjXbJdsylkLYtfzUxD1Zh6J9r_hvkCsNLU" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy"><figcaption><em>Figure 7. Share of validators with downtime duration greater than 5% of total epoch duration over epochs №209-236 for superminority (cyan line) and supermajority set of validators (red).</em></figcaption></figure><h3 id="downtime-duration-distribution-for-updates-and-other-causes"><br>Downtime duration distribution for updates and other causes</h3><p>As it was described previously, downtimes may happen due to Solana node software updates as well as due to hardware upgrades and unexpected halts. The available on-chain data allows to distinguish between downtimes related to software updates and related to other causes and compare downtime duration distributions for the supermajority and superminority groups of validators.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/vKMR9AxmKV1-dm-jSA0f_mSFiEZV_oR0ur9g8_R5666r4z1vSn8OJcikdkq9La4l99IWwzLZgv-1OATphpDFbdEh2izdijhIDTmYTJ4GlpPPr7-vKAa-0HoaZXwhoNmzYu1ilpBJ" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy"><figcaption><em>Figure 8. Downtime duration distribution (in logarithmic scale) unrelated to software updates for supermajority (green line), superminority (blue) set of validators and P2P Validator (red). Dashed lines of corresponding colors show the average downtime duration written nearby</em></figcaption></figure><p><br>According to the distributions of downtime duration not related to software updates (see Figure 8), validators groups are quite similar apart from the fact that supermajority validators are more likely to have very long outages that greatly increase the average value of downtime duration (69 vs. 34 minutes for the superminority group). It should be noted that even if the P2P Validator goes down (or delinquent), on average it happens for an extremely short time of 1.5 minutes.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/Ho-gbXZDhA6SyHlPnJxSGrHE2F5x-Cn8HGwX0K30wuoibCH6Ay_Rx1Obq8D4Se3MoUATYUxICIKq-7RuKkZhcct1ARAUruNtCaGi4_1lNBsDEhJYpGS3Fao5osWpA1lV4oeWyYhC" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy"><figcaption><em>Figure 9. Downtime duration distribution (in logarithmic scale) related to software updates for supermajority (green line), superminority (blue) set of validators and P2P Validator (red). Dashed lines of corresponding colors show the average downtime duration written nearby.</em></figcaption></figure><p><br>Concerning downtimes due to software updates (see Figure 9), the distributions for the groups differ considerably: for the superjmajority group there is much more variability in downtime duration when compared to the superminority and again supermajority validators frequently have much longer update times leading to higher average (195 vs. 76 minutes for superminority group). Superminority validators including the P2P Validator demonstrate high consistency in update duration presumably due to specific administration standards developed by professional engineers who operate these validators.</p><h3 id="average-update-time-by-solana-software-versions">Average update time by Solana software versions</h3><p>Different Solana node software versions vary significantly in the complexity and duration of the installation process, which directly affects the downtime duration associated with updates. Figure 10 below shows the average update time of Solana node software versions by validators from the supermajority and superminority groups.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/0ahrMb4jlGfbkVuMN5FNxFwdjqx5563dDEDqWSLqdpz0w9edfuUv7_Y6QWh0FFM704pbpyQHtmjKPTskVDj54VjWDgnPdARp5nSOnUiUueOuJq6BJbVUjpo45J66poJ8ZK26HX6c" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy"><figcaption><em>Figure 10. Average update time for different Solana node software versions.</em></figcaption></figure><p><br>Of all the most used versions of Solana node software, the update to version 1.6.25 took the longest for both supermajority (4.5 hours on average) and superminority (3.5 hours on average) validators. Long updates to versions 1.7.11 and 1.7.15 were performed only by validators from the supermajority group and took approximately 2-3 hours to complete. Overall, validators from the superminority group usually perform the updates significantly faster ensuring less rewards losses for them and their delegators.</p><h2 id="summary">Summary</h2><p>Downtime duration is a very important metric as it reflects Solana validators operators efficiency and influences rewards received by validators and their delegators as well as overall network’s stability and security. Solana Foundation and the network validators do everything they can to improve performance of nodes and quality of software that control nodes operation, and we can say with confidence that they do it very well, especially validators from superminority group thanks to the experience and professionalism of DevOps engineers.</p><h2 id="acknowledgements">Acknowledgements</h2><p>Authors of the report would like to express gratitude and appreciation for the <a href="https://p2p.org/">P2P Validator</a><strong> </strong>team whose guidance, support and encouragement have been invaluable throughout the research. We would also like to thank <a href="https://twitter.com/stephenakridge">Stephen Akridge</a>, co-founder of Solana, <a href="https://twitter.com/vmulps">Ruud van Asseldonk</a>, software engineer at Chorus One, and <a href="https://twitter.com/RDorzbach">Robert Dörzbach</a>, product manager of the Solana Beach, for helpful advice, comments and corrections.</p><h2 id="disclaimer">Disclaimer</h2><p>Information presented in this report and referenced sources are for educational purposes only. It is not financial/investment advice. Seek a licensed professional for any financial advice. Authors of the report made every reasonable effort to ensure the accuracy and validity of the information provided. However, as price points, conditions, and information are continually changing, authors reserve the right to change at any time without notice, information contained in the report and make no warranties or representations as to its accuracy or up-to-dateness.</p><p>Authors of the report are employees of P2P Validator company which provides professional services and consulting for highly secure non-custodial staking across more than 25 blockchain networks, including the Solana network with mainnet and testnet validator nodes as well as RPC nodes. Therefore, P2P Validator is not a neutral party with its own business interests in the Solana ecosystem. Nevertheless, authors did their best to make the report as objective as possible with the main purpose in mind being to educate and inform the community.</p><h2 id="sources-of-data">Sources of data</h2><ol><li><a href="https://app.swaggerhub.com/apis-docs/V2261/solanabeach-backend_api/0.0.1">https://app.swaggerhub.com/apis-docs/V2261/solanabeach-backend_api/0.0.1</a></li><li><a href="https://docs.solana.com/developing/clients/jsonrpc-api">https://docs.solana.com/developing/clients/jsonrpc-api</a></li><li><a href="https://www.validators.app/api-documentation">https://www.validators.app/api-documentation</a></li><li><a href="https://redash.p2p.org/public/dashboards/ZEW9RvuBXPdYHUU5aC7DfVjY8DJaXQrGenG2HUmo?org_slug=default">https://redash.p2p.org/public/dashboards/ZEW9RvuBXPdYHUU5aC7DfVjY8DJaXQrGenG2HUmo?org_slug=default</a></li></ol><hr><h2 id="about-p2p-validator">About P2P Validator</h2><p>P2P Validator is a world-leading non-custodial staking provider <strong><strong>securing more than </strong>4<strong> billion USD value from over </strong>2<strong>0,000 delegators across 25+ high-class networks</strong></strong>. We are early investors in Solana and have supported the network from the first block taking part in all stages of testing and voting.</p><hr><p><strong><strong>Web</strong></strong>: <a href="https://p2p.org/">p2p.org</a><br><strong><strong>Stake SOL with us</strong></strong>: <a href="https://p2p.org/solana">p2p.org/solana</a><br><strong><strong>Twitter</strong></strong>: @p2pvalidator<br><strong><strong>Telegram</strong></strong>: <a href="https://t.me/P2Pstaking">t.me/P2Pstaking</a></p>

Pavel Marmalyuk

from p2p validator

Solana Solana Inflation and Staking Rewards

<p><em>This post will outline incentives for Solana token holders to stake SOL and earn rewards by securing the network.</em></p><p><strong>Stake your SOL and earn up to 8% in staking rewards using our simple <a href="https://p2p.org/economy/stake-sol-solana-with-solflare-wallet-and-ledger/">step-by-step guide</a> for staking with Solflare Wallet and Ledger Nano S/X.</strong></p><p>Inflation has been enabled in <a href="https://p2p.org/solana">Solana</a> allowing SOL delegators to earn rewards for contributing to the security and decentralisation of the network. </p><p>We've gathered the most important information related to SOL staking and inflation below. For more details, visit <a href="https://p2p.org/solana">p2p.org/solana</a>. </p><h2 id="solana-inflation">Solana Inflation</h2><p>In order to compensate node operators for state validation and delegators for locking their funds, every epoch (~2-3 days), protocol issues new SOL based on emission rate called inflation. <strong>Every epoch staking rewards are added to the active stake automatically.</strong> Inflation parameter is defined on a protocol level representing annual emission percentage. The exact value of new minted SOL is recalculated every epoch based on the total supply.</p><p>Solana token emission is distributed among validator pools based on their stake weight in the network. Every epoch a special program on Solana calculates the weight of all active stakes and assigns points that are used to proportionally divide SOL rewards among participants for that period.</p><p>A decision about inflation rate value is very important for sustainable network growth. It should incentivize participants to stake, cover costs of operating for validators and at the same time avoid over dilution of network users. <strong>For the first year annual emission will constitute 8%</strong>. In the following years inflation percentage will be decreasing by 15% per year until emission reaches ~1,5%.</p><p>Another revenue source is derived from transaction fees. It is expected to be relatively low for the first years. In current implementation 50% of transaction fees is burned while the rest goes to the current leader who processed the transaction.</p><h2 id="sol-staking-rewards">SOL Staking Rewards</h2><p>With the enabling of Solana inflation, SOL token holders are now able to earn rewards on their staked tokens. </p><ul><li>The Solana <strong>inflation/emission rate</strong> will start at 8% and decrease by 15% annually until it reaches a long-term inflation of 1.5%.</li><li>The <strong>SOL rewards</strong> <strong>are</strong> <strong>distributed</strong> to delegators every epoch, which is approximately ~2 days.</li><li>The <strong>Solana</strong> <strong>warm-up period</strong> - the time taken for your SOL stake to start earning rewards is approximately ~2 days if the amount is less than 25% of staked tokens.</li><li>The <strong>Solana cool-down period</strong> - time for your stake to become liquid after you stop staking is approximately ~2 days if the amount is less than 25% of staked tokens.</li><li>Your staking <strong>rewards are compounded automatically</strong>. </li></ul><p>In the beginning all Solana staking rewards will be distributed to validator pools. In the future, additional percentages from total issuance can be directed to the ecosystem development purposes and archivers, network participants who provide storage service downloading parts of the ledger and providing proof of replication of storing the segments.</p><p>The efficiency of Solana staking from an economic perspective depends on the overall participation. The total issuance is distributed to active delegators. If less than all SOL are staked, delegators will receive higher rewards than initial inflation.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2021/02/Sol-infl.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="775" height="436" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2021/02/Sol-infl.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2021/02/Sol-infl.png 775w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>For every epoch (2 days), the annual staking yield can be calculated using the formula:</p><p><em>APY = inflation * archiver_share * foundation_share / staking_ratio</em>, where<br><em>staking_ratio = staked_tokens / total_supply</em></p><p>At time of launch, <em>archiver_share </em>and <em>foundation_share </em>are planned to be set to 0%, so 100% of emission will initially be going to validator pools. <strong>The</strong> f<strong>irst years will be the most attractive for Solana delegators representing an opportunity to increase the network share.</strong></p><p>With the development of staking derivatives it will be possible to generate additional yield on top of staking rewards.</p><hr><p><em>Special thanks to <a href="https://twitter.com/sciencethedata">Eric Williams</a> for valuable additions. Having trouble getting started? Please get in touch with a P2P representative by emailing [email protected] or ask for assistance in our <a href="https://t.me/P2Pstaking">Telegram chat</a>.</em></p><hr><h2 id="about-p2p-validator">About P2P Validator</h2><p>P2P Validator is a world-leading non-custodial staking provider <strong>securing more than 3 billion USD value from over 10,000 delegators across 25+ high-class networks</strong>. We are early investors in Solana and have supported the network from the first block taking part in all stages of testing and voting.</p><hr><p><strong>Web</strong>: <a href="https://p2p.org">p2p.org</a><br><strong>Stake SOL with us</strong>: <a href="https://p2p.org/solana">p2p.org/solana</a><br><strong>Twitter</strong>: @p2pvalidator<br><strong>Telegram</strong>: <a href="https://t.me/P2Pstaking">t.me/P2Pstaking</a></p>

Alex Bond

from p2p validator

Solana Stake Solana (SOL) with SolFlare Wallet and Ledger Nano

<p>In this step-by-step guide, we'll walk you through how you can stake your Solana (SOL) using Solflare Wallet and Ledger Nano S/X. </p><p>To stake on the <a href="http://p2p.org/solana">Solana Network</a>, you'll need to follow these simple steps:</p><ul><li>Install the Solana App on Ledger.</li><li>Connect your Ledger to Solflare wallet</li><li>Transfer SOL to your wallet (if you have not already done so)</li><li>Stake your SOL.</li></ul><h3 id="step-1-install-the-solana-app-on-ledger">Step 1. Install the Solana App on Ledger </h3><p>First of all, download the Ledger Live app on your device and connect the Ledger device. In Ledger Live, via Manager, search for <em>Solana</em> in the App catalog. Click on “Install”. </p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2021/08/image-3.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1286" height="620" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2021/08/image-3.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2021/08/image-3.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2021/08/image-3.png 1286w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><blockquote><em>Make sure you always update to the latest version of the Solana application</em></blockquote><h3 id="step-2-connect-your-ledger-to-solflare-wallet">Step 2. Connect your Ledger to Solflare wallet</h3><p>Go to <a href="http://solflare.com">Solflare.com</a> and click "Access" button.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2021/08/image.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1612" height="1048" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2021/08/image.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2021/08/image.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2021/08/image.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2021/08/image.png 1612w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>Choose "Ledger" tab and click “Continue”.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2021/08/image-2.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1436" height="736" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2021/08/image-2.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2021/08/image-2.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2021/08/image-2.png 1436w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>Choose the connected Ledger device and click on "Connect". Open the Solana App on your Ledger and connect your device.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2021/08/image-4.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1630" height="708" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2021/08/image-4.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2021/08/image-4.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2021/08/image-4.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2021/08/image-4.png 1630w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>Select your address in the drop-down section.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2021/08/Screenshot-2021-08-23-at-11.29.55.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1398" height="664" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2021/08/Screenshot-2021-08-23-at-11.29.55.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2021/08/Screenshot-2021-08-23-at-11.29.55.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2021/08/Screenshot-2021-08-23-at-11.29.55.png 1398w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>Create a password that you will use to enter your wallet and to submit transactions. Select "Next step" to proceed.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2021/08/Screenshot-2021-08-23-at-11.31.45.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1400" height="672" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2021/08/Screenshot-2021-08-23-at-11.31.45.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2021/08/Screenshot-2021-08-23-at-11.31.45.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2021/08/Screenshot-2021-08-23-at-11.31.45.png 1400w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>After successfully completing the steps above, you will find yourself in the main menu of Solflare where you will find information about your wallet account address.  </p><h3 id="step-3-transfer-sol-to-your-account-skip-to-step-4-if-you-already-have-sol-in-your-wallet-">Step 3. Transfer SOL to your Account (skip to step 4 if you already have SOL in your wallet)</h3><p>You are now ready to transfer SOL to your account.  To find your receiving address select "Receive".</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2021/08/image-5.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="2000" height="240" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2021/08/image-5.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2021/08/image-5.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2021/08/image-5.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w2400/2021/08/image-5.png 2400w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>A pop up window will appear with your Solflare main authority address, and alternatively a QR code. Use this receiving address to send your SOL to your Solflare wallet.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2021/08/image-6.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1172" height="1194" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2021/08/image-6.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2021/08/image-6.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2021/08/image-6.png 1172w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>Once you have transferred funds into you main authority wallet, you are now ready to start Staking!</p><h3 id="step-4-stake-your-sol">Step 4. Stake your SOL</h3><p>To start staking, you must first go to the staking section of the wallet by selecting "Staking" on the top of the page or select "Stake Solana" as indicated in the image below.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2021/08/image-7.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="2000" height="688" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2021/08/image-7.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2021/08/image-7.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2021/08/image-7.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w2400/2021/08/image-7.png 2400w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>You will then have to create a staking account. In the staking page select "Start Staking"</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2021/08/image-8.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1320" height="1408" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2021/08/image-8.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2021/08/image-8.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2021/08/image-8.png 1320w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>A pop up window will appear. Input the amount you wish to stake and the validator you wish to stake with. To find <em>P2P Validator</em> type it in the search bar. Select "Stake" to proceed.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2021/08/image-12.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1156" height="1088" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2021/08/image-12.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2021/08/image-12.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2021/08/image-12.png 1156w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><blockquote><em><em><em>Leave some SOL in your wallet to pay </em></em>for <em><em>transaction fees. Since they are very low at Solana, leaving ~1 SOL in your wallet in your account should be more than enough.</em></em></em></blockquote><p>You will then be prompted to enter your password one last time for security reasons. You will have to verify and confirm your delegation on your Ledger device. Navigating to “Approve” screen, then confirm by pressing both buttons on the device.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2021/08/image-15.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="854" height="1142" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2021/08/image-15.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2021/08/image-15.png 854w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>Once your delegation transaction has been confirmed, you will see that your stake is activating. For more information on when you will start receiving rewards please refer to our <a href="https://help.p2p.org/en/articles/5245666-solana-sol-warm-up-period">SOL Warm-Up</a> article.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2021/08/image-16.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="2000" height="604" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2021/08/image-16.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2021/08/image-16.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2021/08/image-16.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w2400/2021/08/image-16.png 2400w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>That's it! You are now delegating your SOL to P2P Validator. Note that your SOL are still fully in your custody, but you are delegating them to P2P to help us partake in network activities and you will be rewarded for your contribution! You can find more information about Solana Rewards in the following page: <a href="https://help.p2p.org/en/articles/5242448-solana-sol-staking-rewards-fees">Solana (SOL) Staking Rewards &amp; Fees</a></p><p> <br>Some points worth noting:</p><ul><li><strong>Warm-up period</strong> (time until your stake starts earning rewards): ~2 days.</li><li><strong>Cool-down period</strong> (time for your stake to become liquid after you stopped staking): ~ 2 days.</li><li><strong>The current inflation</strong> rate is 8%</li></ul><hr><p><strong>If you have any questions, feel free to ask in our <a href="https://t.me/P2Pstaking">Telegram chat</a></strong></p><hr><h3 id="about-p2p-validator">About P2P Validator</h3><p>P2P Validator is a world-leading non-custodial staking provider securing more than $3 billion from over 10,000 delegators across 25+ high-class networks. We were early investors in Solana and have supported the network from the first block, taking part in all stages of testing and voting.</p><p><br><strong>Web</strong>: <a href="http://p2p.org/?utm_source=blog&amp;utm_campaign=sol_guide">p2p.org</a><br><strong>Stake</strong> <strong>SOL</strong> <strong>with</strong> <strong>us</strong>: <a href="http://p2p.org/solana?utm_source=blog&amp;utm_campaign=sol_guide">p2p.org/solana</a><br><strong>Twitter</strong>: <a href="https://twitter.com/P2Pvalidator">@p2pvalidator</a><br><strong>Telegram</strong>: <a href="https://t.me/P2Pstaking">t.me/P2Pstaking</a></p>

Pavel Pavlov

from p2p validator

Solana, Serum P2P Validator Joins Serum Project as a Node Operator

<p>This year has been marked by the surge of decentralized finance (DeFi) and rise of a value locked through Uniswap - an automated market maker. Despite this, notable limitations like slow transaction processing, a spike in gas prices and the absence of trustless cross-chain swaps still exist, aggravating user experience.</p><p>Serum is going to eliminate these limitations of DeFi space. It is a <strong><strong>trustless decentralized exchange by design</strong></strong> built on top of Solana blockchain implying low latency and high transaction speed. Serum has <strong><strong>cross-chain support</strong></strong> and does not rely on centralized price feeds. <strong><strong>It is fully interoperable with Ethereum ecosystem</strong></strong> and provides the same trading experience that users get on centralized platforms by being the first high-throughput exchange that has a fully <strong><strong>on-chain orderbook and matching engine</strong></strong>.</p><p>Due to impressive performance qualities <strong><strong>Serum can become a foundational block for DeFi</strong></strong>.</p><p><em><em>With that in mind, P2P Validator is thrilled to announce the launch of Serum node with the mission of fostering DeFi growth and supporting censorship-resistance of value exchange.</em></em></p><p>Our team has extensive experience in setting up secure infrastructure. <strong><strong>P2P Validator maintains high-availability nodes and provides secure staking services for the most groundbreaking projects in the blockchain space</strong></strong>. We are an early Solana investor and active contributor operating a robust validator for mainnet beta. The node infrastructure is under advanced monitoring with 24/7 technical support, backups and alerts.</p><h3 id="about-serum"><strong>About Serum</strong></h3><p><a href="https://projectserum.com/">Serum</a> is a trustless decentralized exchange that enables seamless cross-chain trading and outstanding user experience. It allows fast order placement and on-chain order matching overcoming existing limitations in the space. It was founded by a group including team members from<a href="https://ftx.com/"> FTX</a> and<a href="https://www.alameda-research.com/"> Alameda Research</a> supported by advisors from Compound, BitMax, TomoChain and other notable projects. The list of partners include: Aleph.im, BitMax, FTX, Kyber Network, Leminscap, Multicoin Capital and many other well-established companies.</p><p>Learn more by visiting the<a href="https://projectserum.com/"> Serum Project website</a>,<a href="https://twitter.com/ProjectSerum"> Twitter</a> or<a href="https://t.me/ProjectSerum"> Telegram</a>. If you’re a developer, read a technical<a href="https://docs.google.com/document/d/1isGJES4jzQutI0GtQGuqtrBUqeHxl_xJNXdtOv4SdII/edit#"> introduction to Serum</a> and join the discussion on<a href="https://discord.com/invite/MxZFT4v"> Discord</a>.</p><h3 id="about-p2p-validator"><strong>About P2P Validator</strong></h3><p><a href="https://p2p.org/?utm_source=blog&amp;utm_campaign=serum_intro">P2P Validator</a> is a world-leading staking provider with the best industry security practices and proven expertise. We provide comprehensive due-diligence of digital assets and offer only top-notch staking opportunities. At the time of the latest update, <strong><strong>more than </strong>3<strong> </strong>b<strong>illion of USD value is staked with P2P Validator by over </strong>10,<strong>000 delegators across </strong>2<strong>5+ networks.</strong></strong> We are early Solana investors and contributors having a goal to provide the long term support for the ecosystem.</p><hr><p><strong><strong>Web:</strong></strong><a href="https://p2p.org/?utm_source=blog&amp;utm_campaign=serum_intro"> https://p2p.org</a></p><p><strong><strong>Twitter:</strong></strong><a href="https://twitter.com/p2pvalidator"> @p2pvalidator</a></p><p><strong><strong>Telegram: </strong></strong><a href="https://t.me/P2Pstaking">https://t.me/P2Pstaking</a></p>

Alex Bond

from p2p validator