Ethereum, Explain Like I'm Five, Staking The Dencun Upgrade: A New Era for Ethereum

<p>Ethereum, the second-largest blockchain platform by market capitalization, is on the brink of a transformative leap with the <strong>eagerly anticipated Dencun upgrade, slated for activation on March 13th</strong>.<br><br>As a hub for a myriad of decentralized applications (dApps) and a hotbed for blockchain innovation, Ethereum has faced its share of challenges, notably in scalability and the burden of high transaction costs.<br><br>This forthcoming upgrade is a watershed moment in Ethereum's evolution towards a rollup-centric future. <strong>By introducing Proto-Danksharding (EIP-4844), Ethereum is setting the stage for unprecedented scalability and efficiency enhancements</strong>, promising to address these critical challenges head-on.<br><br><strong>Quick Highlights: Dencun Upgrade &amp; P2P.org's Role</strong></p><ul><li><strong>Upgrade Date</strong>: Ethereum's Dencun upgrade is set for March 13th, marking another significant leap in Ethereum's scalability.</li><li><strong>Core Features</strong>: Proto-Danksharding (EIP-4844), aimed at drastically cutting transaction costs and enhancing scalability through innovative "blob" data storage.</li><li><strong>Impact on Layer 2</strong>: The upgrade promises more efficient Layer 2 solutions, directly benefiting the Ethereum community.</li><li><strong>P2P.org's Involvement</strong>: Our <a href="https://x.com/p2pvalidator/status/1711641189810876743?s=46&ref=p2p.org">engagement in testnets showcases our commitment to Ethereum's development and ensures readiness for the upgrade.</a> (read more in the paragraphs below!)</li><li><strong>Staking Dynamics:</strong> Finally, we tried to anticipate how the upgrade would impact Staking, LSTs, and what's ahead.<br><br><strong>User Advisory</strong>: No immediate action is needed from P2P.org users; we're set to guide you through this transition smoothly.</li></ul><h2 id="proto-danksharding">Proto-Danksharding</h2><p>At the heart of the Dencun upgrade is <a href="https://www.eip4844.com/?ref=p2p.org">EIP-4844</a>, a groundbreaking proposal promising to dramatically enhance Ethereum's scalability. It's designed to significantly enhance Ethereum's scalability by introducing a new type of data storage called "blobs." These blobs allow for efficient, short-term storage of extensive data sets off the main blockchain while ensuring their processing availability. This mechanism reduces the overall transaction costs and paves the way for more scalable Layer 2 solutions by creating a separate space for batch processing of transactions. <strong>Proto-Danksharding is a critical step towards Ethereum's vision of achieving high transaction throughput, aiming to accommodate over 100,000 transactions per second.</strong><br><br><a href="https://twitter.com/PaulYa5hin?ref=p2p.org">Pavel Yashin</a>, a leading data analyst and researcher at P2P.org, shares his insights on this upgrade's impact on the Ethereum ecosystem.</p><blockquote>"EIP-4844 will create a separate blockspace for L2 batch processing, resulting in a two-dimensional fee market," explains Yashin. "This means Layer 2 solutions will have their own EIP-1559-like market, optimizing the costs of uploading data and potentially leading to a drastic decrease in L2 fees. The implications for the blockspace markets and the staking economy are profound."</blockquote><h3 id="the-impact-on-blockspace-markets">The Impact on Blockspace Markets</h3><p>Currently, L2 smart contracts are among the top consumers of gas on Ethereum, utilizing approximately 12-15% of blockspace primarily for batch uploading. Introducing a separate blockspace for these operations will alleviate this pressure, lowering base fees until new consumers fill the gap.<br></p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2024/02/GGSzSh9WUAA1jP5.jpeg" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1696" height="892" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/GGSzSh9WUAA1jP5.jpeg 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/GGSzSh9WUAA1jP5.jpeg 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2024/02/GGSzSh9WUAA1jP5.jpeg 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2024/02/GGSzSh9WUAA1jP5.jpeg 1696w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption>Data from Dune Analytics gathered by Pavel Yashin</figcaption></figure><p>The Dencun upgrade heralds a significant improvement for Layer 2 (L2) solutions, as they will gain independence from the congestion and fee spikes of Layer 1 (L1). Only local congestion within L2s will influence their operation, making Ethereum's blockspace more efficient and user-friendly. </p><blockquote><strong>This independence from L1 congestion ensures that L2 solutions can offer a more consistent and predictable fee structure, significantly enhancing the user experience on the Ethereum network.</strong></blockquote><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2024/02/GGSzoO2X0AAfNJ-.jpeg" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1694" height="892" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/GGSzoO2X0AAfNJ-.jpeg 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/GGSzoO2X0AAfNJ-.jpeg 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2024/02/GGSzoO2X0AAfNJ-.jpeg 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2024/02/GGSzoO2X0AAfNJ-.jpeg 1694w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"><figcaption>"Despite being huge gas consumers, L2s are nowhere near a major source of priority fees: most batch posting transactions occur at the bottom of the block. The last 3 months' data shows that L2 payments to proposers were around only 1.6% of total EL rewards," says Pavel Yashin</figcaption></figure><h3 id="staking-economy-and-priority-fees"><br>Staking Economy and Priority Fees</h3><p>While the upgrade is poised to bring significant benefits to L2 users, its impact on stakers might be less pronounced. "For stakers, the change may pass by mostly unnoticed, affecting only a fraction of APR from priority fees income," Yashin notes. "However, the decrease in base and priority fees could make Ethereum more attractive to a broader user base." (<a href="https://x.com/PaulYa5hin/status/1757736309492179012?s=20&ref=p2p.org">original Tweet by Pavel Yashin</a>)</p><h2 id="p2porg-leading-ethereums-charge-towards-scalability"><br>P2P.org: Leading Ethereum's Charge Towards Scalability</h2><p>P2P.org's involvement in Ethereum's development extends beyond theoretical contributions. Our engagement is exemplified by <strong>our active participation in all three testnets</strong>, where we've consistently pushed the boundaries of Ethereum's capabilities.<br><br>A testament to our technical dedication is the <strong>development of the Dirk Key Converter (DKC)</strong>. This pivotal tool enhances node operators' tooling by facilitating the migration to the vouch/dirk schema. It significantly boosts security levels by adopting threshold signatures, underscoring our commitment to advancing Ethereum's infrastructure. <strong>As a genesis node operator for the Holesky testnet, we've underscored our technical prowess by managing over 100,000 keys, demonstrating our capability to conduct large-scale operations with unmatched precision and reliability.</strong></p><p>Moreover, our <strong>collaborative endeavors with leading projects</strong> such as <a href="http://obol.tech/?ref=p2p.org">Obol</a>, <a href="http://ssv.network/?ref=p2p.org">SSV.network</a>, <a href="https://lido.fi/?ref=p2p.org">Lido</a>, and <a href="https://docs.eigenlayer.xyz/eigenda/overview/?ref=p2p.org">EigenDA</a> further highlight our role in fortifying Ethereum's ecosystem. By actively engaging in testing setups for these initiatives, we contribute to the overall robustness and efficiency of the network.<br><br>Our involvement goes beyond mere participation as we actively contribute to shaping Ethereum's scalable, secure, and efficient future, showcasing our unwavering commitment to the platform's advancement.</p><p>The Dencun upgrade, with EIP-4844 as its cornerstone, symbolizes more than a technical milestone; it represents a significant stride toward fulfilling Ethereum's scalable, efficient, and user-centric vision.</p><p>"P2P.org is proud to be at the vanguard of Ethereum's evolution, contributing to a foundation that will make L2 users' experiences more affordable and set the stage for true sharding," Yashin asserts. "More scalability for the scalability god."</p><p>The Dencun upgrade exemplifies the community's dedication to innovation as Ethereum continues its journey and enhances its scalability. With P2P.org's involvement and the expertise of Pavel Yashin, the upgrade is not merely a step forward for Ethereum but a giant leap for the broader blockchain ecosystem.<br></p><div class="kg-card kg-button-card kg-align-center"><a href="https://p2p.org/ethereum?ref=p2p.org" class="kg-btn kg-btn-accent">Stake with us!</a></div><h2 id="strategic-adjustments-in-ethereums-staking-dynamics"><br>Strategic Adjustments in Ethereum's Staking Dynamics</h2><p>As Ethereum continues to evolve with the Dencun upgrade, a strategic adjustment is set to refine the staking dynamics within the network.</p><div class="kg-card kg-callout-card kg-callout-card-red"><div class="kg-callout-emoji">💡</div><div class="kg-callout-text"><strong>Scheduled for implementation in Q1 2024, alongside the Dencun update, is a pivotal change encapsulated in <a href="https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-7514?ref=p2p.org">EIP-7514</a>, which proposes setting the maximum churn limit to 8.</strong></div></div><p>This initiative is driven by the motivation to mitigate the potential negative impacts of an excessively high total ETH supply being staked, pending a more comprehensive solution to adjust the rewards curve. Essentially, <strong>this measure is designed to temper the growth pace of staked ETH</strong>, acknowledging the complexities involved in modifying the reward structure.</p><h4 id="implications-for-staking">Implications for Staking</h4><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh7-us.googleusercontent.com/BHLhmKazzbV0Qxb4Qjw9_20rb-ifIUdqJmKJX1Zo0vL0GUWg6Ycgg1z15hoQhrPfmZcceopDbAMxdNSZaFnQSvEc0NMxNg5UOiVD5F-NGnUM96siGk_CWEcn1nZMvBt922AQ5rjDMQZ57IB4xYtmRec" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="602" height="364"></figure><p><strong>With the current churn limit at 13, the adjustment to a churn limit of 8 represents a significant deceleration in stake growth—by approximately 40%.</strong> This recalibration aims to cap the annual growth of the staking ratio to around 17.5% of the total supply. Such a slowdown is anticipated to foster a more competitive landscape for staking providers, as the effective addressable market contracts by a corresponding margin.</p><div class="kg-card kg-callout-card kg-callout-card-blue"><div class="kg-callout-text">Notably, since October 15th, 2023, the activation limits have been under no pressure, with queues seldom reaching 50% of the daily activation capacity. However, as of February 2024, a resurgence in queue congestion has been observed, likely spurred by positive market sentiment and an influx of long-term investments or anticipation of forthcoming updates.</div></div><p>This scenario underscores the importance of making timely staking decisions, especially if the positive outlook on Ethereum's macroeconomic environment persists, potentially leading to queue lengths surpassing those observed post-Shapella.</p><h4 id="impact-on-liquid-staking-tokens-lsts">Impact on Liquid Staking Tokens (LSTs)</h4><p>In the event of heightened demand for staking and the emergence of queues, it's conceivable that interest may partially shift towards Liquid Staking Tokens (LSTs). Although this shift would likely result in a reduced yield on LSTs, their appeal remains intact, suggesting that LSTs could be pivotal in Ethereum's staking ecosystem moving forward.</p><h4 id="looking-ahead">Looking Ahead</h4><p>This adjustment is envisioned as a temporary measure, awaiting a definitive stance from the Ethereum Foundation on key staking parameters, such as the target staking ratio and inflation considerations. It represents a thoughtful approach to balancing growth with sustainability, ensuring Ethereum's long-term resilience and scalability.</p><hr><h2 id="contact-us">Contact Us:</h2><p>Please read <a href="https://twitter.com/PaulYa5hin/status/1757736309492179012?s=20&ref=p2p.org">the original tweet on Dencun Upgrade by Pavel Yashin</a>.<br>Consider reading our <a href="https://p2p.org/economy?ref=p2p.org">blog</a> to learn more about the staking market and download our <a href="bit.ly/P2PorgReport">Epoch Report</a>, a comprehensive market overview.</p><p><em><em><em><em>Do not hesitate to ask questions in our <a href="https://t.me/P2Pstaking?ref=p2p.org">Telegram chat</a> </em></em></em></em><br><em><em><em><em>We are always open for communication.</em></em></em></em><br><br>We encourage you to check our website and start our staking journey together!</p><div class="kg-card kg-button-card kg-align-center"><a href="https://p2p.org/ethereum?ref=p2p.org" class="kg-btn kg-btn-accent">Stake with us!</a></div><hr><p><strong><strong><strong><strong>Web:</strong></strong></strong></strong> <a href="https://p2p.org/?ref=p2p.org">https://p2p.org</a><br><strong>Blog:</strong> <a href="https://p2p.org/economy/">https://p2p.org/economy</a><br><strong><strong><strong><strong>Twitter:</strong></strong></strong></strong> <a href="https://twitter.com/p2pvalidator?ref=p2p.org">@p2pvalidator</a><br><strong><strong><strong><strong>Telegram:</strong></strong></strong></strong> <a href="https://t.me/P2Pstaking?ref=p2p.org">https://t.me/P2Pstaking</a></p>

Kamil Jakub Natil

from p2p validator

DVT, Staking, Ethereum, SSV.Network How does DVT help mitigate client majority risks?

<p></p><h2 id="intro">Intro</h2><p>The Ethereum community is now focusing on one critical theme: <strong>the risk of a supermajority client</strong>. Without delving too deep, as Dankrad Feist has already brilliantly explained this risk over two years ago in his article <a href="https://dankradfeist.de/ethereum/2022/03/24/run-the-majority-client-at-your-own-peril.html?ref=p2p.org">here</a>, it's crucial to understand the serious threat it poses.<br><br><strong>A bug in an execution client, if it is used by over 66% of the network, could force the community into painful decisions impacting network stability, users' funds, and the ETH token price.</strong><br><br>The community is already showing positive signs, reducing Geth dependency from 84% (source: <a href="clientdiversity.org">clientdiversity.org</a>), which is a step in the right direction. While execution client matters used to be passive, recent bugs with Nethermind and Besu have sparked conversation and concern among investors and professional staking providers.<br></p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card kg-width-wide kg-card-hascaption"><img src="https://lh7-us.googleusercontent.com/rR0teqSDx-du8AvFCtK436fQh88hVYHMtpk9uz78LXdH7G9KbWL1ZfLRKbHf_ohw2TQGWo6YNwdCNRtmdIGAuMZNwD8gx_JmjKYPjH3n6xr2wPpkUVHFyRI_6vaw2sBnA4OP5unuHf7sLHuQf3vlja8" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="368" height="489"><figcaption>ETHEREUM CLIENTS DISTRIBUTION</figcaption></figure><p><br><br><strong>How DVT Helps</strong><br>The demand for change is loud and clear. Large staking service providers, therefore, are reassessing their strategies to reduce their reliance on Geth. But what constitutes a sustainable change to mitigate supermajority risks today?<br><br>Imagine a scenario where providers start replacing Geth with another client, like Nethermind. This could inadvertently create a new supermajority. <strong>The Ethereum goal is a multi-client architecture where no single client software exceeds ⅓ of the total network coverage.</strong></p><p>DVT is crucial here. By staking on SSV.network, for example, your validator is managed by a minimum of four node operators, significantly reducing the risk of a system failure. As long as three out of four operators (or the set threshold for larger clusters) are active, the validator remains online and continues earning rewards. This added fault tolerance benefits client-related bugs and common faults among node operators, such as power failure, connectivity issues, or even hardware or software failure.<br><br>However, this isn't a complete solution. Clusters of node operators belonging to one single entity are not unlikely to be seen, which can undermine the goal of decentralization. This becomes riskier if they use the same EL/CL setup, as a bug in one client could affect the entire cluster.</p><p>A takeaway from this for investors is to pay attention to which node operators are running the cluster, their setup, and how each node operator is correlated to others.</p><div class="kg-card kg-button-card kg-align-center"><a href="https://p2p.org/products/dvt?ref=p2p.org" class="kg-btn kg-btn-accent">The solution: Check our DVT Staking API</a></div><p><br><br><strong>What P2P.org is Doing Now</strong><br>Navigating these complexities can be overwhelming. That's why, at the end of last year, we developed our <strong>DVT Staking API solution, designed for large enterprises to automate staking and lower the risk of a penalty occurring due to client supermajority bugs</strong>.<br><br>This non-custodial solution, powered by DVT (SSV.network), gives instant access to a secure and diversified staking environment. By integrating a smart contract to manage $SSV on behalf of the client, we remove complex manual processes so that users can stake their ETH while having a top-performing cluster managing their validator. </p><p>Initially, creating a cluster with diverse EL/CL clients was challenging. Some node operators struggled with minority client synchronization, forcing a balance between performance and client diversification. Until recently, our network supported two operators running Geth. This has changed with the addition of RockX to our network. Their institutional expertise and focus on minority clients accelerate our path toward decentralization, ensuring no single execution/consensus client dominates our cluster.</p><div class="kg-card kg-button-card kg-align-center"><a href="https://docs.p2p.org/docs/getting-started-ssv?ref=p2p.org" class="kg-btn kg-btn-accent">Check our API Documentation</a></div><p><br><br><br><strong>P2P.org's Future Plans</strong><br>P2P has been actively working on solutions to mitigate risks posed by an execution client supermajority and other systemic risks. But, we are far from being satisfied. While we've made meaningful progress, the issue of preventing future clients from gaining a supermajority remains. Our cluster can be decentralized further, and we're contributing toward achieving a network where no client has more than ⅓ of the nodes.</p><p>Institutions seek more control over their validators, including client selection, location, and MEV relays. We're responding to these needs by developing features starting with CL/EL selection. If you prefer using only minority clients for your validator, we're making that a reality.</p><h2 id="contact-us"><br>Contact Us:</h2><p><em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em>Do not hesitate to ask questions in our <a href="https://t.me/P2Pstaking?ref=p2p.org">Telegram chat</a> or </em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em>contact <a href="mailto:[email protected]">Alessandro Maci</a>.</em><br><br><em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em>We are always open for communication.</em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em></p><hr><p><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong>Web:</strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong> <a href="https://p2p.org/?ref=p2p.org">https://p2p.org</a></p><p><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong>Twitter:</strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong> <a href="https://twitter.com/p2pvalidator?ref=p2p.org">@p2pvalidator</a></p><p><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong><strong>Telegram:</strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong></strong> <a href="https://t.me/P2Pstaking?ref=p2p.org">https://t.me/P2Pstaking</a></p><p></p><p><br><br></p>

Alessandro Maci

from p2p validator

EigenLayer, Renzo, Ethereum, Partnership, restaking P2P.org and Renzo Partner for Decentralize Node Infrastructure

<p>P2P.org is excited to announce a partnership with Renzo, a Liquid Restaking Token (LRT) and Strategy Manager for EigenLayer. This collaboration signifies another step forward in our commitment to decentralizing node infrastructure, institutional adoption of our Staking API and enhancing Ethereum's economic security.<br></p><p><strong>Who are Renzo?</strong><br>Renzo is at the forefront of facilitating permissionless innovation on Ethereum. As an interface to the EigenLayer ecosystem, Renzo secures Actively Validated Services (AVSs), stating they offer yields higher than traditional ETH staking. By abstracting the complexities, Renzo allows end-users to collaborate seamlessly with EigenLayer node operators. Renzo's dedication to promoting EigenLayer's vision of trust acquisition and ecosystem development makes it an ideal partner for P2P.org.<br></p><p><strong>Our Collaboration</strong><br>P2P.org has been fully integrated into Renzo's Mainnet, as the second node operator. This integration enables us to scale Ethereum's economic security to all EigenLayer AVS. Renzo's approach to liquid restaking, combined with our expertise in institutional-grade node operation, creates a powerful synergy. We are thrilled to contribute to Renzo's mission of offering high-quality restaking services.<br></p><p>Renzo's advocacy for EigenLayer and its commitment to decentralized innovation aligns perfectly with our core values at P2P.org. We both strive for transparency, security, and the widespread adoption of decentralized solutions.<br></p><p><strong>Looking Ahead</strong><br>This partnership marks a significant milestone in our journey towards a more decentralized, secure, and innovative Ethereum ecosystem. We are proud to collaborate with Renzo and contribute to the EigenLayer vision. <br></p><p>Stay tuned for more updates and developments from this strategic partnership!<br></p><p>For more information about Renzo and EigenLayer, visit their <a href="https://www.renzoprotocol.com/?ref=p2p.org">website</a> and explore their innovative solutions for Ethereum staking. <br></p><p>As always, <a href="P2P.org">P2P.org</a> remains committed to our core values of Security, Transparency, Asset Rewards, Technology, and Smart Governance (STATS), ensuring the best for our community and partners.<br><br>Contact us on our official community Telegram channel if you’d like to speak to our team.<br><br>Link: <a href="https://t.me/P2Pstaking?ref=p2p.org">https://t.me/P2Pstaking</a></p>

Kamil Jakub Natil

from p2p validator

Ethereum, Staking Announcing a Milestone Partnership: P2P.org Teams up with Matrixport to Offer Staking Infrastructure

<p>We are excited to unveil an exciting <strong>new partnership between P2P.org and Matrixport, strategically designed to supercharge the growth of staking opportunities for institutional investors to engage in ETH staking.</strong> This collaboration seamlessly aligns with P2P.org's core mission of delivering secure and user-centric staking solutions. Moreover, it underscores our unwavering commitment to accelerating institutional adoption.</p><h3 id="whos-matrixport">Who's Matrixport?</h3><p>Matrixport is one of Asia's fastest-growing digital asset platforms that offers a comprehensive suite of crypto investment products and financial services. Its service includes tokenized real-world assets, prime brokerage, custody, spot OTC, fixed income, investment products, lending, and asset management.  </p><p><strong>P2P.org’s infrastructure and platform now power Matrixport’s groundbreaking and hassle-free staking product.</strong> Clients' deposited ETH will be 100% staked through P2P.org. </p><p>Our mutual aspiration is to actively propel the adoption of institutional staking and move the ecosystem forward, ensuring its continuous growth and evolution. The shared vision revolves around simplifying user access to diverse financial products via decentralized technology. </p><h3 id="enhanced-staking-and-security-with-p2porg">Enhanced Staking and Security with P2P.org</h3><p>Your security is our top priority. At P2P.org, we take a dual-layered approach to protect a client's digital assets. We also have stringent security measures, such as cutting-edge encryption protocols and multi-signature wallets.</p><p>Our commitment to protecting your stake, even in worst-case scenarios, sets us apart. Our fail-safe mechanisms, like smart contracts, ensure you can permanently unlock and access your assets.</p><p>Together with Matrixport, we are committed to delivering a seamless, secure, and efficient path for institutional Ethereum staking opportunities.</p><h3 id="contact-us">Contact us</h3><p>For in-depth insights into staking with Matrixport and leveraging P2P.org's robust security features, contact <a href="https://www.matrixport.com/institutions/get-in-touch?ref=p2p.org">Matrixport</a> or connect with our customer service teams on Telegram at <a href="https://t.me/P2Pstaking?ref=p2p.org">https://t.me/P2Pstaking</a>.</p>

Kamil Jakub Natil

from p2p validator

Ethereum, restaking, EigenLayer A Step-by-Step Guide: Eigen Layer Restaking

<h3 id="eigen-layer-restaking-is-now-live"><br>Eigen Layer restaking is now live!</h3><p>EigenLayer has <a href="https://twitter.com/eigenlayer/status/1669065156427681792?s=20&ref=p2p.org">successfully launched</a> Stage 1 of their Mainnet. This is a significant milestone, and <a href="http://p2p.org/?ref=p2p.org">P2P.org</a> is happy to be a part of this historical moment as one of the EigenLayer <a href="https://www.blog.eigenlayer.xyz/eigenlayer-stage-1-mainnet-launch/?ref=p2p.org#:~:text=Dimitry%20Ukhanov%20%2D%20P2P">community multisig members</a>!</p><p>Restaking doesn't generate any rewards right now since the launch of Actively Validated Services (AVS) generating these rewards is planned for a later stage.</p><p>However, EigenLayer <a href="https://www.blog.eigenlayer.xyz/eigenlayer-mainnet-launch-benefits-of-early-restaking-2/?ref=p2p.org">highlights</a> that restaking early provides the earliest possible access to AVS rewards, as some services may cap their initial restake amounts.</p><p>EigenLayer was launched with initial usage limits of 3200 for stETH, rETH, cbETH, and 9600 ETH for native staking. The stETH cap of 3200 ETH was reached <a href="https://twitter.com/eigenlayer/status/1669085279020527616?ref=p2p.org">within the first hour</a>, with rETH and cbETH following shortly afterward! The team promises to increase limits progressively over the coming weeks and months.</p><p>Although all liquid staking token (LST) options have already reached <a href="https://restaking.nethermind.io/?ref=p2p.org">their caps</a>, native stakers still have time to become a part of early adopters.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/06/Untitled--2-.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="2000" height="464" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/06/Untitled--2-.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/06/Untitled--2-.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2023/06/Untitled--2-.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/06/Untitled--2-.png 2378w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><h3 id="restaking-with-p2porg">Restaking with P2P.org</h3><p>You can restake your ETH on the EigenLayer network using the <a href="http://p2p.org/?ref=p2p.org" rel="noopener noreferrer">P2P.org</a> staking dApp. Our dApp, which is non-custodial, supports the option to customize validator withdrawal addresses—a fundamental necessity for directly restaking to an EigenPod. Suppose you don't already have an EigenPod address. In that case, we are excited to announce a new feature where users can generate their own EigenPod address directly within the staking process in our dApp!<br><br><strong>Below, we have prepared a step-by-step guide on how to do this.</strong> However, before restaking, please take note:</p><div class="kg-card kg-callout-card kg-callout-card-yellow"><div class="kg-callout-emoji">⚠️</div><div class="kg-callout-text">The withdrawal address is used to get your ETH deposit back. It's specified once, and nobody can change it after the staking deposit is sent because the network cements the association of a particular validator and withdrawal address. When you decide to put your EigenPod Address as a withdrawal address, you accept EigenLayer smart contract risk and understand that <a href="https://p2p.org/?ref=p2p.org" rel="noopener noreferrer">P2P.org</a> can't change this address.</div></div><p>How to restake if you don't already have an Eigenpod address:<br><br>1. First, visit our Ethereum staking dApp at <a href="https://eth.p2p.org/?ref=p2p.org">eth.p2p.org</a> and connect a Web3 wallet.</p><p>2. After connecting to the Web3 wallet, enter in the field the amount of ETH you want to stake, for example, 32 ETH. Under the field, you will see option Eigenlayer restaking with the checkbox:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2024/02/Untitled-35.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="978" height="832" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/Untitled-35.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2024/02/Untitled-35.png 978w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p><br>3. Activate the checkbox (blue = activated). After you activate the checkbox, note that the button "Continue" below the screen switched to "Create Eigenpod address":</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2024/02/Untitled-36.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="984" height="842" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/Untitled-36.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2024/02/Untitled-36.png 984w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>4. Now, we need to create an Eigenpod address by pressing the following button. The creation of an Eigenpod address happens by calling the Eigenlayer smart contract. As the user requests the calling of a smart contract in the Ethereum network, you must pay Gas for the Eigenpod transaction and sign it in your wallet.</p><p>5. After the user has signed the transaction, the Eigenpod address will be created, and its withdrawal credentials will be automatically filled in the 'Withdrawal address' field in 'Advanced settings.' Pressing the Continue button to continue the process:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2024/02/Untitled-37.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="976" height="1330" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/Untitled-37.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2024/02/Untitled-37.png 976w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><div class="kg-card kg-callout-card kg-callout-card-grey"><div class="kg-callout-emoji">⚠️</div><div class="kg-callout-text">Based on the Eigenlayer system design, you will receive CL rewards on the created EigenPod address, while your EL rewards will be sent to Eigenpod’s owner address (the wallet you used to create Eigenpod). Since you are using our flow, your Eigenpod owner’s address is the one you are connected to our dApp during this staking process.</div></div><p>6. The system will start the staking process and will show you the final staking details. Review details, and press the 'Stake' button.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2024/02/Untitled-38.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="974" height="1310" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/Untitled-38.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2024/02/Untitled-38.png 974w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>7. The dApp will ask you to sign the transaction with your Web3 wallet. After signing and the transaction pending, the system will confirm that your stake is done successfully!</p><h3 id="watch-a-video-tutorial-here">Watch a video tutorial here:</h3><figure class="kg-card kg-embed-card"><iframe width="200" height="113" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/otF8VpSRMvo?feature=oembed" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture; web-share" allowfullscreen title="Restaking Ethereum with P2P.org and EigenLayer using dApp (step-by-step)"></iframe></figure><p></p><h2 id="how-to-restake-with-a-new-or-existing-eigenpod-address">How to restake with a new or existing EigenPod address:</h2><p>To restake, you first need to set up an EigenPod address that will be connected to your wallet. This EigenPod address will be the withdrawal address in the P2P.org staking dApp. To do this:</p><p>1. Go to <a href="https://app.eigenlayer.xyz/?ref=p2p.org" rel="noopener noreferrer">https://app.eigenlayer.xyz/</a> and connect a wallet:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2024/02/image-2.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="2000" height="1225" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/image-2.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/image-2.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2024/02/image-2.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2024/02/image-2.png 2000w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>2. Click "Create EigenPod" and confirm this transaction in your wallet:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2024/02/image-3.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="2000" height="1180" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/image-3.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/image-3.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2024/02/image-3.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2024/02/image-3.png 2000w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>3. A confirmation message will confirm your EigenPod was created successfully:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2024/02/image-4.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="2000" height="1130" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/image-4.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/image-4.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2024/02/image-4.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2024/02/image-4.png 2000w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>4. Click "Pod Details" and copy your EignePod address:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2024/02/image-5.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="2000" height="1276" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/image-5.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2024/02/image-5.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2024/02/image-5.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2024/02/image-5.png 2000w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>5. Visit <a href="https://eth.p2p.org/?ref=p2p.org" rel="noopener noreferrer">eth.p2p.org</a> to complete the next step in the process: Staking your ETH to an Ethereum validator. This step takes around two minutes and does not require registration or completing KYC. The below image shows how to complete this simple process: <strong>You need to turn on the checkbox Eigenlayer restaking and set your EigenPod address as the validator Withdrawal address in Advanced settings:</strong></p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2024/02/Untitled-39.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="980" height="1330" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2024/02/Untitled-39.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2024/02/Untitled-39.png 980w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><div class="kg-card kg-callout-card kg-callout-card-grey"><div class="kg-callout-emoji">🔒</div><div class="kg-callout-text"><a href="http://p2p.org/?ref=p2p.org"><i><em class="italic" style="white-space: pre-wrap;">P2P.org</em></i></a><i><em class="italic" style="white-space: pre-wrap;">'s unique feature enables MEV rewards for stakers with an EigenPod address. What's crucial is that, by default, EigenPod does not accept MEV rewards. Check the next paragraph for further details</em></i>.<i><em class="italic" style="white-space: pre-wrap;">Validators propose new blocks and receive rewards, which include MEV, to their execution rewards address. Technically, the withdrawal address and the execution rewards address can be different. However, to simplify the staking process, most operators set the withdrawal address as the execution rewards address by default. However, this poses an issue for restaking: EigenPod doesn't accept direct transactions from MEV bots, which means it can't receive most MEV rewards either.We resolve this issue by automatically checking if you have put EigenPod as your withdrawal address. In such cases, we extract your EigenPod owner's wallet and use it as the execution rewards recipient address. This ensures that your MEV rewards are completely secure.</em></i></div></div><p><br>6. After staking completion, your validators will enter the validator entry queue, and by the time you're live, your EigenPod balance, will immediately reflect the stake. You can check the current activation time in our <a href="https://p2p.org/networks/ethereum/queue?ref=p2p.org" rel="noopener noreferrer">Ethereum queue dashboard</a>.</p><h3 id="watch-a-video-tutorial-here-1">Watch a video tutorial here:</h3><figure class="kg-card kg-embed-card"><iframe width="200" height="113" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/RduD_-s1HH0?feature=oembed" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture; web-share" allowfullscreen title="Restaking Ethereum with EigenLayer and P2P.org (for users with EigenPod address, step-by-step)"></iframe></figure><p></p><h2 id="qa">Q&amp;A:</h2><p><strong>How can I do restaking for EigenLayer?</strong></p><p>We have a simple guide for restaking; check it out here: <a href="https://p2p.org/economy/eigen-layer-restaking-with-p2p-org-guide/">https://p2p.org/economy/eigen-layer-restaking-with-p2p-org-guide/</a></p><p><strong>What are the Restaking points?</strong></p><p>Rewards and how they are distributed are still a work in progress. The Eigen Layer team plans to share more details in 2024Q2. For now, extra rewards are distributed by Eigenlayer in Restaking points. Restaking points measure your contribution to the shared security of the EigenLayer ecosystem, the temporary proof of your participation in the EigenLayer network. You will receive Restaking points in your Eigenpod during the restaking process.</p><p><strong>How many Restaking points will I get for restaking?</strong></p><p>Restaking points are a measure of staking participation equal to the time-integrated amount staked in units of ETH*hours. You can read here more about how this share is measured in Eigenlayer documentation about Restaking points: <a href="https://docs.eigenlayer.xyz/eigenlayer/restaking-guides/restaking-user-guide/restaked-points?ref=p2p.org">https://docs.eigenlayer.xyz/eigenlayer/restaking-guides/restaking-user-guide/restaked-points</a></p><p><strong>What risks are involved with restaking?</strong></p><p>Restaking, while offering additional rewards, also brings with it inherent risks. Validators participating in restaking face potential penalties from Ethereum and EigenLayer if they violate network consensus rules.</p><p>Moreover, validators' withdrawal credentials are tied to EigenLayer's upgradeable Eigenpod smart contracts, introducing further elements of complexity and risk.</p><p>A comprehensive risks <a href="https://docs.eigenlayer.xyz/eigenlayer/risk/risk-faq?ref=p2p.org">FAQ by Eigen Layer</a> covers all risks;</p><p><strong>What about Eigenlayer slashing risks?</strong></p><p>There is no slashing until the protocol upgrade in the second half of 2024, giving new protocols and operators enough time to develop a robust risk mitigation framework.</p><p>In the future, validators participating in restaking face potential penalties from Ethereum and EigenLayer if they violate network consensus rules. So operators should carefully setup infrastructure and choose AVSes to run. Regarding native vs. LST, native restaking is a much safer option than restaking LST tokens, since your withdrawal credentials are associated with smart contracts under your management.</p><p><strong>How Eigenlayer addresses restaking risks?</strong></p><ol><li>Smart contracts are audited, and a <a href="https://docs.eigenlayer.xyz/eigenlayer/security/bug-bounty?ref=p2p.org">$2 million bug bounty program</a> has been initiated since December 2023, underscoring its commitment to ongoing security enhancements.</li><li>There is a community multisig (<a href="http://p2p.org/?ref=p2p.org">P2P.org</a> is one of 13 members). In extraordinary circumstances, the Community Multisig can perform emergency actions, including immediately executing time-critical upgrades or replacing the Operations Multisig in the event of private key compromise. <a href="https://docs.eigenlayer.xyz/eigenlayer/security/multisig-governance?ref=p2p.org">https://docs.eigenlayer.xyz/eigenlayer/security/multisig-governance</a></li><li>There is no slashing until the protocol upgrade in the second half of 2024, giving new protocols and operators enough time to develop a robust risk mitigation framework.</li><li>Regarding unintentional slashing due to protocol/AVS mistakes, EigenLayer establishes a "slashing council." This council will oversee and adjudicate any slashing incidents, ensuring fairness and accuracy in administering penalties while the slashing mechanism evolves. The slashing event doesn't burn ETH; it only freezes it on the EigenPod address. This freeze can be removed by slashing the council. That will secure early restakers from slashing losses due to AVS/protocol mistakes.</li></ol><p><strong>How to exit from Eigenlayer?</strong></p><p>After validators are exited from the Ethereum network, your ETH transfers to the EigenPod address, and after a 7-day lock period, you can withdraw them from EigenPod.</p><h2 id="contact-us">Contact Us:</h2><p><em>Do not hesitate to ask questions in our </em><a href="https://t.me/P2Pstaking?ref=p2p.org"><em>Telegram chat</em></a><em> <br>We are always open for communication.</em><br><br>We encourage you to check our website and start our staking journey together!</p><div class="kg-card kg-button-card kg-align-center"><a href="https://p2p.org/ethereum?ref=p2p.org" class="kg-btn kg-btn-accent">Stake with us!</a></div><hr><p><strong>Web:</strong> <a href="https://p2p.org/?ref=p2p.org">https://p2p.org</a><br><strong>Blog:</strong> <a href="https://p2p.org/economy/">https://p2p.org/economy</a><br><strong>Twitter:</strong> <a href="https://twitter.com/p2pvalidator?ref=p2p.org">@p2pvalidator</a><br><strong>Telegram:</strong> <a href="https://t.me/P2Pstaking?ref=p2p.org">https://t.me/P2Pstaking</a></p>

Vladislav Kurenkov

from p2p validator

Ethereum A Step-by-Step Guide: Using the P2P.org ETH Staking App on Safe

<p><strong>Introduction:</strong></p><p>Our team has been hard at work, and we're pleased to say that the new direct ETH staking app is now live in the Safe Apps Ecosystem. This blog post will guide you through how to use the P2P.org Non-Custodial direct ETH Staking App on Safe. Discover how to set up your wallet integration, find additional support from us, and seize the opportunity to stake your ETH effortlessly.</p><p></p><p><strong>The P2P.org App with Safe</strong></p><p>Safe is one of the most trusted decentralized custody protocols and collective asset management platforms on Ethereum. Holding and safeguarding billions of dollars in assets, Safe provides secure and <a href="https://www.google.com/url?q=https://docs.safe.global/learn/security/security-audits&sa=D&source=docs&ust=1686751866991915&usg=AOvVaw0Vm0CRfgmqRZjLRGu-89ff">audited</a> smart contract accounts for individuals and organizations.</p><p>The first-of-its-kind app on the Safe Apps Ecosystem allows users to quickly and easily direct stake ETH with just a few clicks while maintaining full custody of their assets.</p><p>Additionally, it will enable clients to avoid smart contract risks associated with liquid staking protocols. At the time of this article being created, Safe currently stores $39B+ in digital assets for its users. <br></p><p>The P2P.org Safe App integration is another step towards our vision to support non-custodial staking services to a growing DeFi community whilst allowing full ownership over your digital assets. Additionally, Safe users will still benefit from P2P.org's slashing protection guarantee when they direct stake their ETH through the app.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-video-card"><div class="kg-video-container"><video src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/media/2023/06/Safe-New.mp4" poster="https://img.spacergif.org/v1/1920x1080/0a/spacer.png" width="1920" height="1080" playsinline preload="metadata" style="background: transparent url('https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/06/media-thumbnail-ember210.jpg') 50% 50% / cover no-repeat;"></video><div class="kg-video-overlay"><button class="kg-video-large-play-icon"><svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewbox="0 0 24 24"><path d="M23.14 10.608 2.253.164A1.559 1.559 0 0 0 0 1.557v20.887a1.558 1.558 0 0 0 2.253 1.392L23.14 13.393a1.557 1.557 0 0 0 0-2.785Z"/></svg></button></div><div class="kg-video-player-container"><div class="kg-video-player"><button class="kg-video-play-icon"><svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewbox="0 0 24 24"><path d="M23.14 10.608 2.253.164A1.559 1.559 0 0 0 0 1.557v20.887a1.558 1.558 0 0 0 2.253 1.392L23.14 13.393a1.557 1.557 0 0 0 0-2.785Z"/></svg></button><button class="kg-video-pause-icon kg-video-hide"><svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewbox="0 0 24 24"><rect x="3" y="1" width="7" height="22" rx="1.5" ry="1.5"/><rect x="14" y="1" width="7" height="22" rx="1.5" ry="1.5"/></svg></button><span class="kg-video-current-time">0:00</span><div class="kg-video-time">/<span class="kg-video-duration"></span></div><input type="range" class="kg-video-seek-slider" max="100" value="0"><button class="kg-video-playback-rate">1&#215;</button><button class="kg-video-unmute-icon"><svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewbox="0 0 24 24"><path d="M15.189 2.021a9.728 9.728 0 0 0-7.924 4.85.249.249 0 0 1-.221.133H5.25a3 3 0 0 0-3 3v2a3 3 0 0 0 3 3h1.794a.249.249 0 0 1 .221.133 9.73 9.73 0 0 0 7.924 4.85h.06a1 1 0 0 0 1-1V3.02a1 1 0 0 0-1.06-.998Z"/></svg></button><button class="kg-video-mute-icon kg-video-hide"><svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewbox="0 0 24 24"><path d="M16.177 4.3a.248.248 0 0 0 .073-.176v-1.1a1 1 0 0 0-1.061-1 9.728 9.728 0 0 0-7.924 4.85.249.249 0 0 1-.221.133H5.25a3 3 0 0 0-3 3v2a3 3 0 0 0 3 3h.114a.251.251 0 0 0 .177-.073ZM23.707 1.706A1 1 0 0 0 22.293.292l-22 22a1 1 0 0 0 0 1.414l.009.009a1 1 0 0 0 1.405-.009l6.63-6.631A.251.251 0 0 1 8.515 17a.245.245 0 0 1 .177.075 10.081 10.081 0 0 0 6.5 2.92 1 1 0 0 0 1.061-1V9.266a.247.247 0 0 1 .073-.176Z"/></svg></button><input type="range" class="kg-video-volume-slider" max="100" value="100"></div></div></div></figure><p><strong>How to Set Up Your P2P.org Safe Wallet Integration:</strong></p><ul><li>Visit the Safe website: <a href="https://safe.global/?ref=p2p.org">https://safe.global/</a>.</li><li>Click on "Launch Wallet" to access your dashboard.</li><li>On the left-hand side, locate and click on "Apps" to enter the apps ecosystem.</li><li>Search for "P2P" or "P2P.org" to find the P2P.org app.</li><li>Select the app and click on "Open Safe App."</li><li>Read the Disclaimer and press "Continue."</li><li>Next, review the User Terms, tick the box to accept, and click "Accept."</li><li>Enter the amount of ETH you wish to stake (remember, the minimum requirement is 32 ETH), and click "Continue." This will set up the validator and infrastructure, which may take up to one minute.</li><li>Confirm the staking details on the screen, then click "Stake ETH" and confirm the transaction in your wallet.</li><li>Once the transaction is indexed, you can view it in the pending queue. Feel free to click the "Chat with us" button to connect with our customer support via the Telegram group <a href="https://t.me/P2Pstaking?ref=p2p.org">@P2Pstaking</a>.</li><li>Head back to your dashboard to access the details of your staked ETH and monitor the status of your transaction.</li><li>If you encounter any questions or need further assistance, our dedicated support team is here to help. Join our Telegram group @P2Pstaking to connect with our knowledgeable staff and engage with the P2P.org community.</li></ul><p>You should now all be set up and ready to embark on your staking journey with P2P.org's direct ETH Staking App on Safe. Enjoy the benefits of secure and hassle-free staking while maintaining complete control and ownership of your assets. <br></p><div class="kg-card kg-button-card kg-align-center"><a href="https://app.safe.global/share/safe-app?appUrl=https%3A%2F%2Feth.p2p.org&chain=eth&ref=p2p.org" class="kg-btn kg-btn-accent">Stake with safe</a></div><p></p>

P2P Validator

from p2p validator

Ethereum Ethereum - A week after Shapella

<p>The Shapella upgrade, which happened on April 12, 2023, has been the most significant event for Ethereum since The Merge in September 2022. In our <a href="https://p2p.org/economy/the-shapella-upgrade-a-deep-dive-into-withdrawals/" rel="noopener noreferrer">recent article</a>, we explored the important features of the Shapella upgrade, with a focus on partial and full withdrawals. In this article, we will go deeper into the upgrade. We will look at the current network status a week after the upgrade, full and partial withdrawals, and who withdrew. We also examine how this transition affected the performance metrics of pools and operators.</p><h3 id="table-of-contents"><strong>Table of contents</strong></h3><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><ul> <li><a href="#T1"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Network Overview </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T2"><span style=" font-size:16px"> The first hours after the upgrade </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T3"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Withdrawals<br> </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T4"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Operators performance </span></a></li> </ul> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="network-overview-a-namet1a">Network Overview <a name="T1"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>One week after Shapella, the current total staked amount is 17,972,763 ETH, 54k lower than the maximum on April 12th. This stake represents approximately 15.65% of the total circulating supply of Ethereum, indicating strong investor confidence in the platform. The network's effectiveness has decreased to 91.46% because it experienced minor struggles after the upgrade.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/10.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1680" height="307" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/10.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/04/10.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2023/04/10.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/10.png 1680w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="the-first-hours-after-the-upgrade-a-namet2a">The First hours after the upgrade <a name="T2"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>The most noticeable inaccuracies occurred in the first three hours after the activation slot. During this period, around 15% of blocks were missed, 7% of attestations did not occur, and approximately 30% of head votes were incorrect. Naturally, these inaccuracies led to a decrease in the share of consensus layer rewards. It should also be noted that the correlation between incorrect head votes and missed blocks is observed due to consensus rules - the lifetime of attestation of a valid head vote block is one slot, and if it is not submitted, then there was no block.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/11.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1680" height="1679" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/11.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/04/11.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2023/04/11.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/11.png 1680w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>Going into detail, we have identified several reasons for the network indicators observed in the first hours after the update. Firstly, the reduced percentage of correct attestations suggests that up to 9% of validators were not updated, which directly affected block misses. Secondly, <a href="https://github.com/prysmaticlabs/prysm/pull/12263?ref=p2p.org">Prysm experienced problems with obtaining MEV-blocks</a>. It was unable to produce blocks while connected to relays. Thirdly, <a href="https://github.com/sigp/lighthouse/issues/4184?ref=p2p.org">Lighthouse was 100% CPU-loaded for about 2 hours</a>, which led to missed attestations and late block proposing. Another reason, in our experience, is that the Teku client took a long time, about 15 seconds, to import blocks, causing lag on the network. These facts highlight the importance of client diversity in ensuring network stability.</p><p>However, the minor nature of the problems is confirmed by the fact that with each epoch, effectiveness slowly but constantly improved, and in a day, though not without emergency releases of CL clients, it reached the usual indicators.</p><p>Additionally, with the Capella update, validators who specified the "old" BLS address as withdrawal credentials were able to change it to the ETH1 address with the 0x01 prefix. This operation requires more RAM, bandwidth, and CPU power from the CL Node in each slot and <a href="https://twitter.com/TimBeiko/status/1646289478326145026?ref=p2p.org">had a small impact on the degradation of network performance metrics</a>.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/12.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1680" height="970" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/12.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/04/12.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2023/04/12.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/12.png 1680w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>In the first 6 days, 226k validators changed their addresses, it’s about 70% of all validators with BLS withdrawal credentials. This means that the time needed for one iteration of the withdrawal clock has increased significantly, but has not reached its maximum.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="withdrawals-a-namet3a">Withdrawals <a name="T3"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>The Shapella upgrade introduces two types of withdrawals: full withdrawals (also known as exits) and partial withdrawals (staking reward collection). If you would like to dive deeper into how withdrawals work, you can explore our <a href="https://p2p.org/economy/the-shapella-upgrade-a-deep-dive-into-withdrawals/" rel="noopener noreferrer">Shapella Upgrade article</a>.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/13.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1680" height="1230" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/13.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/04/13.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2023/04/13.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/13.png 1680w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>After the Ethereum update, the total amount of Ethereum withdrawn was found to be 1,323,637 ETH, with only 1.6% of validators exiting the system. This withdrawal led us to analyze the amount of Ethereum that was sold on DEX, and we found that only 0.25% of the total ETH was actually sold.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/14.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1680" height="982" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/14.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/04/14.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2023/04/14.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/14.png 1680w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>The analysis also revealed that most of the validators who withdrew were from Kraken, accounting for over 90% of the total withdrawals. The reason behind this mass withdrawal was a fine imposed by the SEC, which forced the exchange to wind down its US staking operations.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/15.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1680" height="1075" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/15.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/04/15.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2023/04/15.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/15.png 1680w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>We can see that a large number of full withdrawals occurred between April 15th and April 20th. The Kraken validators' indexes are sequential, meaning their withdrawals also occurred sequentially. As a result, we observe large volumes on those days. All 333k ETH withdrawn from Kraken's validators is currently being held in the withdrawal address 0x210b3cb99fa1de0a64085fa80e18c22fe4722a1b.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/16.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1680" height="1065" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/16.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/04/16.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2023/04/16.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/16.png 1680w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>In addition, it’s important to note that there are currently 19,029 validators waiting to exit the active validator set. Currently, only 8 validators can exit every epoch. After that, there is a waiting period of 27 hours to ensure that the validator is unslashed. Finally, the withdrawal process involves a looped queue that can take up to 5 days. Therefore, at this time, the exit queue is approximately 12-16 days.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/17.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1680" height="971" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/17.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/04/17.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2023/04/17.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/17.png 1680w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>The number of validators in the exit queue is gradually decreasing. Our analysis suggests that over 72% of active exiting validators belong to centralized exchanges (CEX). Meanwhile, the number of validators waiting to enter the active validator set is increasing and currently stands at 8,152.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/18--1-.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1680" height="931" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/18--1-.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/04/18--1-.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2023/04/18--1-.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/18--1-.png 1680w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>This trend indicates a growing interest in Ethereum staking, as evidenced by the observable increase in the waiting time within the queue. Currently, the waiting time is equal to 1 day and 20 hours.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="operators-performance-a-namet3a">Operators performance <a name="T3"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>We examined how this transition affected on validator’s performance metrics divided by pools and operators. As we can observe, after the update on 13th April validator effectiveness dropped over 10 p.p for operators.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/19.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1680" height="981" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/19.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/04/19.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2023/04/19.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/19.png 1680w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>The effectiveness of a validator is determined by its block proposal and attestation rates, which are the measures of performing the validator’s duties like timely block proposals and attestations. Let's take a closer look at each of these indicators.</p><p>After a recent update, there were a significant number of missed blocks in the network. On April 13th, there were a total of 633 missed blocks, which is 342% higher than the number of missed blocks on April 12th. As shown in the plot, this had a negative impact on the block proposal rate and led to a drawdown.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/20.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1680" height="981" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/20.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/04/20.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2023/04/20.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/20.png 1680w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>The attestation rate is measured by three factors: participation rate, correctness, and inclusion delay.</p><p>We can see that the participation rate didn't change much after the update for most validators, except for RocketPool, whose uptime dropped by around 2.5 percentage points. However, the correctness plot shows that there were many incorrect head votes and target votes after the update. Additionally, the average inclusion distance between the attestation slots attributed and the actual slots the votes were included in, also increased.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/21--1-.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="2000" height="944" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/21--1-.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/04/21--1-.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2023/04/21--1-.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w2400/2023/04/21--1-.png 2400w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>However, during the week, the operator's performance improved, allowing them to recover to the values of the level before the update.</p><h3 id="slashings">Slashings</h3><p>This week was unfortunate for several validators. There were 11 slashings on the next day after Shapella by validators of RockLogic GmbH in Lido pool, but this is not related to the update, just the operator suffered from a bug with keystore in the Prysm client. This case, certainly, was analyzed in detail, accompanied by a <a href="https://blog.lido.fi/loe-rocklogic-gmbh-slashing-incident/?ref=p2p.org">post-mortem</a> and has already been fixed.</p><p>The good side of this news is that since Lido has a money-back policy and treasury, none of the clients will definitely suffer losses.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="conclusion-a-namet4a">Conclusion <a name="T4"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>In conclusion, the Shapella upgrade has had a significant impact on the Ethereum network. The transition was not without its challenges, with a significant number of missed blocks in the network and a decrease in effectiveness. However, the network has shown resilience and has been able to recover to pre-upgrade levels in terms of performance. The increase in the waiting time for validators to enter the active validator set indicates a growing interest in Ethereum staking, which bodes well for the future of the network. While there were some issues with the upgrade, the Ethereum community has shown its ability to adapt and overcome challenges, which is a positive sign for the future development of the platform.</p>

P2P Validator

from p2p validator

Ethereum Ethereum (ETH) Staking dApp guide

<p>We are excited to introduce our ground-breaking Ethereum (ETH) auto-staking feature, powered by our <a href="https://github.com/mixbytes/audits_public/tree/master/P2P.org?ref=p2p.org" rel="noopener noreferrer">audited immutable smart contract</a>. This feature completely automates the Ethereum staking process, making staking ETH easier than ever.</p><p>Our ETH staking offer is completely non-custodial and there are no KYC requirements. You simply connect your wallet and stake. </p><p>To set up a validator you will only need:</p><p>1) An Ethereum wallet</p><p>2) To specify the amount of stake - 1 validator per 32 ETH;</p><p>3) To specify the withdrawal address.</p><h2 id="ethereum-staking-guide">Ethereum Staking guide</h2><ol><li>Navigate to <a href="https://eth.p2p.org/?ref=p2p.org">https://eth.p2p.org/</a> and you will be brought up to the screen below.</li></ol><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/image.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1440" height="811" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/image.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/04/image.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/image.png 1440w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>2. Then click "connect wallet" on the top right. We currently support Metamask and Ledger Wallet or you can use Wallet Connect. </p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/image-4.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1440" height="802" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/image-4.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/04/image-4.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/image-4.png 1440w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>We have prepared a video guide on how to connect a Safe wallet:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-video-card"><div class="kg-video-container"><video src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/media/2023/04/howto-eth-p2p-stake.mp4" poster="https://img.spacergif.org/v1/1920x1080/0a/spacer.png" width="1920" height="1080" playsinline preload="metadata" style="background: transparent url('https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/media-thumbnail-ember2702.jpg') 50% 50% / cover no-repeat;"></video><div class="kg-video-overlay"><button class="kg-video-large-play-icon"><svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewbox="0 0 24 24"><path d="M23.14 10.608 2.253.164A1.559 1.559 0 0 0 0 1.557v20.887a1.558 1.558 0 0 0 2.253 1.392L23.14 13.393a1.557 1.557 0 0 0 0-2.785Z"/></svg></button></div><div class="kg-video-player-container"><div class="kg-video-player"><button class="kg-video-play-icon"><svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewbox="0 0 24 24"><path d="M23.14 10.608 2.253.164A1.559 1.559 0 0 0 0 1.557v20.887a1.558 1.558 0 0 0 2.253 1.392L23.14 13.393a1.557 1.557 0 0 0 0-2.785Z"/></svg></button><button class="kg-video-pause-icon kg-video-hide"><svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewbox="0 0 24 24"><rect x="3" y="1" width="7" height="22" rx="1.5" ry="1.5"/><rect x="14" y="1" width="7" height="22" rx="1.5" ry="1.5"/></svg></button><span class="kg-video-current-time">0:00</span><div class="kg-video-time">/<span class="kg-video-duration"></span></div><input type="range" class="kg-video-seek-slider" max="100" value="0"><button class="kg-video-playback-rate">1&#215;</button><button class="kg-video-unmute-icon"><svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewbox="0 0 24 24"><path d="M15.189 2.021a9.728 9.728 0 0 0-7.924 4.85.249.249 0 0 1-.221.133H5.25a3 3 0 0 0-3 3v2a3 3 0 0 0 3 3h1.794a.249.249 0 0 1 .221.133 9.73 9.73 0 0 0 7.924 4.85h.06a1 1 0 0 0 1-1V3.02a1 1 0 0 0-1.06-.998Z"/></svg></button><button class="kg-video-mute-icon kg-video-hide"><svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewbox="0 0 24 24"><path d="M16.177 4.3a.248.248 0 0 0 .073-.176v-1.1a1 1 0 0 0-1.061-1 9.728 9.728 0 0 0-7.924 4.85.249.249 0 0 1-.221.133H5.25a3 3 0 0 0-3 3v2a3 3 0 0 0 3 3h.114a.251.251 0 0 0 .177-.073ZM23.707 1.706A1 1 0 0 0 22.293.292l-22 22a1 1 0 0 0 0 1.414l.009.009a1 1 0 0 0 1.405-.009l6.63-6.631A.251.251 0 0 1 8.515 17a.245.245 0 0 1 .177.075 10.081 10.081 0 0 0 6.5 2.92 1 1 0 0 0 1.061-1V9.266a.247.247 0 0 1 .073-.176Z"/></svg></button><input type="range" class="kg-video-volume-slider" max="100" value="100"></div></div></div></figure><p>3. Once you successfully connect your wallet, we can begin the staking process. We can define how much ETH we want to stake and a withdrawal address.</p><p>Each Ethereum validator requires 32 ETH to set up so Ethereum can only be staked in multiples of 32 ETH. <br><br>We can also pick a different withdrawal address. The withdrawal address is used to receive rewards and withdraw the ETH staked.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/image-6.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1440" height="759" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/image-6.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/04/image-6.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/image-6.png 1440w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>4.  Once everything is set up, we can press continue and we will be taken to a confirmation screen. If everything is set up correctly we can press Stake. </p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/image-7.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1440" height="868" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/image-7.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/04/image-7.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/image-7.png 1440w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>5. You will be prompted to confirm the transaction on your wallet.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/image-8.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1440" height="966" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/image-8.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/04/image-8.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/image-8.png 1440w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>6. After you confirm the transaction in your wallet, wait a few minutes for it to be completed in the network.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/image-9.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1440" height="966" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/image-9.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/04/image-9.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/image-9.png 1440w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>7. Once the transaction has been successfully confirmed we need to wait for the validators to become active. Under normal circumstances can take up to 24 hours but this is subject to change based on the number of people trying to stake.</p><p>While you wait you can join a personal telegram chat with our team. There we will share updates about your stake and can answer all of your questions.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/image-10.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1440" height="1118" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/image-10.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/04/image-10.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/image-10.png 1440w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>8. Once the validators are active you will start earning rewards. You will also have access to a personal dashboard where you can check the status of your staked account. </p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/image-11.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1440" height="1072" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/image-11.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/04/image-11.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/image-11.png 1440w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><hr><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="ethereum-eth-staking-faq">Ethereum (ETH) Staking FAQ</h2> <h3 id="do-i-need-to-pass-kyc-to-stake-eth">Do I need to pass KYC to stake ETH?</h3> <p>No, when working with P2P, there is no need to go through KYC because staked assets never touch our account and are sent directly to the Ethereum network.</p> <h3 id="what-is-the-minimum-amount-of-ethereum-required-to-stake">What is the minimum amount of Ethereum required to stake?</h3> <p>No Ethereum is necessary to run a node. However, it is necessary to stake 32 ETH x [amount of validators] to activate the validators and start getting rewards.</p> <h3 id="what-is-a-withdrawal-address-and-who-owns-it">What is a withdrawal address, and who owns it?</h3> <p>The withdrawal address is the Ethereum address used to unstake and receive rewards. This address is specified once and it can't be changed after the staking deposit is sent, because the network cements the association of a particular validator and withdrawal address. Access to the private key for this withdrawal address is required to unstake (seed phrase). It is also important to note that P2P is not a custodian and has no exposure to the client’s withdrawal private key. P2P will never ask, under any circumstance, at any time for access to the withdrawal key.</p> <h3 id="what-is-a-validator-key-and-who-owns-it">What is a validator key, and who owns it?</h3> <p>A validator key is a private key for maintaining the validator’s work (setting up validators, updating software etc.). P2P owns the validator keys and guarantees the highest standards for protecting these keys from being compromised, breached, or otherwise misused. This is accomplished through Threshold signatures, which are the gold standard for internal/external security threats. This solution is used by leading custodians, crypto banks, and Multi-Party Computation solutions.</p> <h3 id="why-use-smart-contracts-to-stake-eth">Why use smart contracts to stake ETH?</h3> <p>By design, ETH staking requires one staking transaction per 32 ETH. By using smart contracts we significantly simplify staking, reduce the cost of staking and minimize the risk of any human error. Thanks to our <a href="https://github.com/mixbytes/audits_public/tree/master/P2P.org?ref=p2p.org">audited</a> smart contracts it is possible to activate up to 100 validators with a single transaction.</p> <h3 id="can-i-stake-ethereum-with-a-hardware-wallet">Can I stake Ethereum with a hardware wallet?</h3> <p>Yes, it is possible to stake ETH with a Ledger (via native connection) or a Trezor wallet (via Metamask).</p> <h3 id="how-do-i-earn-rewards-from-staking-ethereum">How do I earn rewards from staking Ethereum?</h3> <p>Ethereum rewards are comprised of 2 parts associated with performing validation duties and block creation.</p> <ol> <li>Validation rewards are taken by performing the validator’s duties as an attestation for a block created by another validator, attestation for a block in sync committee and for creating a block. Validation rewards are accrued every 6.4 min and account for around 70% of the total rewards. Currently, these rewards aren’t withdrawable until the Shanghai upgrade. Following Shanghai, it will be possible to:</li> </ol> <ul> <li>Fully withdraw all the staked ETH + rewards and deactivate the validator;</li> <li>Partially withdraw all the Ethereum over 32 to the withdrawal address periodically.</li> </ul> <ol start="2"> <li>Block rewards (priority transaction fees + an additional fee from MEV) are accrued with block creation as a payment from transactions to the validator for including them in the block. It appears once every 62 days on average and accounts for around 30% of the total reward. MEV-boost isn’t a separate type of reward but is a technique used to build a block that will yield the maximum fee. Transaction fees accumulate on a p2p smart contract which is then automatically delivered to the client on a monthly basis after the P2P service fee has been deducted.</li> </ol> <h3 id="can-i-still-use-my-staked-ethereum-while-it-is-staked">Can I still use my staked Ethereum while it is staked?</h3> <p>No, the staked ETH is locked in the Ethereum smart contract and cannot be used.</p> <h3 id="how-does-p2p-take-its-service-fee">How does P2P take its service fee?</h3> <p>P2P takes its service fee from the execution layer rewards. By default, a special immutable smart contract is used to automatically split rewards between the user and P2P by the previously agreed rules. Other invoicing strategies can be employed by prior agreement.</p> <h3 id="how-does-slashing-work-in-ethereum">How does slashing work in Ethereum?</h3> <p>Slashing punishes validators for actions that are very difficult to do accidentally, and it’s very likely a sign of malicious intent. It’s a really rare event: there's only been 5 slashed validators within the whole network over the last month (or 0.001%). <a href="https://beaconcha.in/validators/slashings?ref=p2p.org">beaconcha.in/validators/slashings</a></p> <p>What is “slashable” behaviour? In a nutshell, it’s a violation of consensus rules in the network. As of right now, it needs to meet three conditions: proposal of two conflicting blocks at the same time, double vote attestation and surround attestation. This can happen due to either an intentional malicious action or misconfiguration of the validator (the most often being, running two of the same validators in the network).</p> <p>Slashing results in burning 1,0 ETH at once, and removing the validator from the network forever, which takes 36 days. During this time, the validator continues to work but can no longer participate in validation and block creation, getting a penalty of around 0.1 ETH in total.</p> <p>For the most part that's the sum of the penalty incurred, but there is also an additional midpoint (Day 18) penalty that scales with the number of slashed validators. This is called &quot;correlation penalty” and it's currently only theoretical and has never been encountered on the Ethereum mainnet. This mechanism is there to protect the network from large attacks. The math for calculation penalty is pretty complicated, but the summary is if there are only 1, 100, or even 1000 slashed validators within 36 days the penalty will equal zero ETH. However, if the number of slashed validators increases to roughly 1.1% of all validators (currently 5.1k), this penalty becomes 1 ETH and an additional 1 ETH for every additional 1.1% validator slashed. So if 1/3 of the network is slashed, the penalty will nullify the whole stake (32 ETH). This mechanism is in place to prevent an attack on the network and it should never be triggered by accident.</p> <h3 id="how-can-slashing-be-prevented">How can slashing be prevented?</h3> <p>There are special mechanisms in place to prevent validators from meeting the slashing conditions called <a href="https://medium.com/prysmatic-labs/eth2-slashing-prevention-tips-f6faa5025f50?ref=p2p.org">slashing protection</a>. These mechanisms usually consist of a database with a signing history which the validator uses to check if the block can be signed (coupled with the default levels of monitoring and alerting protection). Additional protection levels will depend on the validator’s setup. P2P uses double-checking with a separate database at the key-manager stage and secures validators' key’s by Threshold, which means that no single person, even a P2P engineer, can run a second validator and a quorum is required for that. The final level of protection we have in place is an institutional grade slashing insurance.</p> <h3 id="how-can-staking-activity-be-tracked">How can staking activity be tracked?</h3> <p>Anyone who stakes with P2P gets access to a personal staking dashboard that can be used to track rewards and the validators' performance (APR, staking balance, % of blocks created with MEV, attestation rate, missed block, market comparisons, etc.)</p> <h3 id="in-what-geographic-location-is-p2ps-validator-infrastructure-running">In what geographic location is P2P's validator infrastructure running?</h3> <p>P2P direct staking infrastructure is located in Europe and distributed among 5 separate physical locations for protection from downtime.</p> <h3 id="how-does-p2p-protect-its-validators-from-widespread-outages">How does P2P protect its validators from widespread outages?</h3> <p>P2P validators have no single point of failure and are downtime resistant with back-ups of all critical infrastructure parts between 5 different physical locations, including:</p> <ol> <li> <p>Signing infrastructure - 3 location-independent key managers with 2-of-3 threshold quorum required for consensus;</p> </li> <li> <p>Validators Nodes - we have a reserve in a secure region ready to be activated within a maximum of 1 minute in case of an outage;</p> </li> <li> <p>Consensus layer nodes - our setup has top-3 consensus layer clients (Lighthouse, Prysm, Teku) simultaneously for diversity and preventing outrages related to soft bugs in one client. It also increases availability for validators.</p> </li> </ol> <!--kg-card-end: markdown-->

P2P Validator

from p2p validator

Ethereum New Product Launch: Ethereum Staking dApp

<h3 id="introducing-our-ethereum-staking-dapp-empowering-users-with-complete-privacy-unmatched-simplicity-ultimate-security-and-zero-fees">Introducing our Ethereum Staking dApp, empowering users with complete privacy, unmatched simplicity, ultimate security and zero fees</h3><p></p><p>We are thrilled to announce the launch of our Ethereum Staking dApp, which is designed to give you the ultimate control over your crypto assets while ensuring complete privacy, autonomy, and security. We have been working diligently behind the scenes to bring you a solution that simplifies the staking process without compromising your privacy.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/image-12.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="670" height="724" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/image-12.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/image-12.png 670w"></figure><h1 id="staking-dapp-key-features"><strong>Staking dApp Key Features</strong></h1><ol><li><strong>Bunker Security Staking &amp; 100% Slashing Protection</strong>: We understand the importance of security for our users, so we have built an infrastructure with no single point of failure. Our geographically distributed data centres with hot reserves in different countries ensure that your validators will keep working even in worst-case scenarios such as a data centre burning down. Moreover, we have implemented threshold cryptography (similar to multisig) to secure your validator keys. This advanced technology ensures that nobody, not even our P2P engineers, can access your validator keys, thereby adding additional protection against slashing incidents. Furthermore, our Staking dApp offers 100% slashing protection options for a truly worry-free staking experience.</li><li><strong>Stake with just a few clicks</strong>: Really, no human input is needed! Our Staking dApp automates the entire staking process, eliminating the need for human intervention. Our dApp is built on smart contracts, offering a transparent, trustless, and tamper-proof solution for staking your Ethereum assets. Additionally, our Staking dApp allows clients to stake directly from our website with just a few clicks, ensuring an effortless experience without the need for any technical know-how.</li><li><strong>No KYC</strong>: Our dApp ensures that you can stake your Ethereum assets without having to go through the cumbersome KYC (Know Your Customer) process. We respect your right to privacy and offer a seamless user experience without any unnecessary roadblocks.</li><li><strong>No Email Registration</strong>: With our Staking dApp, you no longer need to share your email address to stake your crypto. Just access the dApp through your preferred web3-enabled wallet, and you are ready to stake.</li><li><strong>No AML Risks</strong>: We have designed our Staking dApp to comply with all relevant regulations, mitigating any AML (Anti-Money Laundering) risks while ensuring that your Ethereum staking experience is secure and reliable.</li></ol><h2 id="how-does-it-work">How does it work?</h2><p>By automating the staking process, we have created a permissionless dApp that is both user-friendly and highly secure.</p><p>If you have ever tried to delegate your stake to a staking provider, you are already familiar with the multi-step flow of selecting the amount to stake, setting your withdrawal address, entering an email address, and then… receiving an email from a sales representative for an intro call.</p><p>While we understand the reasoning behind it (we have used a similar flow till now), the improvement opportunities in terms of user experience are massive.</p><p>That’s why, when you stake with our staking dashboard, you can expect to complete the request in just a few clicks:</p><ul><li>Enter the amount to stake and the withdrawable address</li><li>Check your staking details and stake the requested amount</li></ul><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/image-13.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="670" height="785" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/image-13.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/image-13.png 670w"></figure><ul><li>Sign a transaction with your favourite wallet provider</li><li>Wait for the transaction to be broadcasted to the Ethereum network</li></ul><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/image-14.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="670" height="868" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/image-14.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/image-14.png 670w"></figure><ul><li>The request is successfully sent!</li></ul><p>After receiving the request, your validators will be added to the Ethereum entry queue before becoming active (the amount of time depends on the network congestion).<br><br>For those of you that have a Safe wallet, we prepared a guide on how to use it with the dApp.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-video-card"><div class="kg-video-container"><video src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/media/2023/04/howto-eth-p2p-stake-1.mp4" poster="https://img.spacergif.org/v1/1920x1080/0a/spacer.png" width="1920" height="1080" playsinline preload="metadata" style="background: transparent url('https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/media-thumbnail-ember272.jpg') 50% 50% / cover no-repeat;"></video><div class="kg-video-overlay"><button class="kg-video-large-play-icon"><svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewbox="0 0 24 24"><path d="M23.14 10.608 2.253.164A1.559 1.559 0 0 0 0 1.557v20.887a1.558 1.558 0 0 0 2.253 1.392L23.14 13.393a1.557 1.557 0 0 0 0-2.785Z"/></svg></button></div><div class="kg-video-player-container"><div class="kg-video-player"><button class="kg-video-play-icon"><svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewbox="0 0 24 24"><path d="M23.14 10.608 2.253.164A1.559 1.559 0 0 0 0 1.557v20.887a1.558 1.558 0 0 0 2.253 1.392L23.14 13.393a1.557 1.557 0 0 0 0-2.785Z"/></svg></button><button class="kg-video-pause-icon kg-video-hide"><svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewbox="0 0 24 24"><rect x="3" y="1" width="7" height="22" rx="1.5" ry="1.5"/><rect x="14" y="1" width="7" height="22" rx="1.5" ry="1.5"/></svg></button><span class="kg-video-current-time">0:00</span><div class="kg-video-time">/<span class="kg-video-duration"></span></div><input type="range" class="kg-video-seek-slider" max="100" value="0"><button class="kg-video-playback-rate">1&#215;</button><button class="kg-video-unmute-icon"><svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewbox="0 0 24 24"><path d="M15.189 2.021a9.728 9.728 0 0 0-7.924 4.85.249.249 0 0 1-.221.133H5.25a3 3 0 0 0-3 3v2a3 3 0 0 0 3 3h1.794a.249.249 0 0 1 .221.133 9.73 9.73 0 0 0 7.924 4.85h.06a1 1 0 0 0 1-1V3.02a1 1 0 0 0-1.06-.998Z"/></svg></button><button class="kg-video-mute-icon kg-video-hide"><svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewbox="0 0 24 24"><path d="M16.177 4.3a.248.248 0 0 0 .073-.176v-1.1a1 1 0 0 0-1.061-1 9.728 9.728 0 0 0-7.924 4.85.249.249 0 0 1-.221.133H5.25a3 3 0 0 0-3 3v2a3 3 0 0 0 3 3h.114a.251.251 0 0 0 .177-.073ZM23.707 1.706A1 1 0 0 0 22.293.292l-22 22a1 1 0 0 0 0 1.414l.009.009a1 1 0 0 0 1.405-.009l6.63-6.631A.251.251 0 0 1 8.515 17a.245.245 0 0 1 .177.075 10.081 10.081 0 0 0 6.5 2.92 1 1 0 0 0 1.061-1V9.266a.247.247 0 0 1 .073-.176Z"/></svg></button><input type="range" class="kg-video-volume-slider" max="100" value="100"></div></div></div></figure><h2 id="free-test-drive-offer">Free Test-drive offer</h2><p>To celebrate the launch of our Staking dApp and the upcoming Shanghai upgrade, we are offering a limited-time promotional period with 0% validator fees until August 1, 2023. This means you can enjoy maximum returns on your staked Ethereum with absolutely no fees.</p><p>And there's more! We have not forgotten our loyal existing clients. If you are a current client and decide to add additional stakes to your account, you will also benefit from the 0% fee promotion. This is our way of thanking you for your continued support and trust in our platform.</p><p>In conclusion, our Ethereum Staking dApp is here to revolutionize the staking experience for Ethereum users. Our commitment to privacy, autonomy, security, and innovation is at the core of our product. We invite you to try out our Staking dApp and join us in this exciting journey towards a decentralized and empowered future.</p><p>If you have any questions or need assistance, please reach out to our BD team! Happy staking, and welcome to the future of Ethereum staking!</p><div class="kg-card kg-button-card kg-align-center"><a href="https://ethereum-staking.p2p.org/?ref=p2p.org" class="kg-btn kg-btn-accent">Stake now</a></div>

P2P Validator

from p2p validator

Ethereum March 2023 Ethereum staking overview

<h1 id="introduction"><strong>Introduction</strong></h1><p>In this post, we will take a deep dive into the Ethereum network during the month of March 2023. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the network and its various components. Here are the topics we explore:</p><ul><li><a href="https://p2p.org/economy/ethereum-staking/#:~:text=Ethereum%20staking%20ecosystem.-,Network%20Overview,-As%20of%20March">Network Overview</a></li><li><a href="https://p2p.org/economy/ethereum-staking/#:~:text=Staking%20review%20by%20segment">Review by staking segments</a></li><li><a href="https://p2p.org/economy/ethereum-staking/#:~:text=validators%20is%20public.-,Lido%20operators,-When%20staking%20involves">Lido operators performance</a></li><li><a href="https://p2p.org/economy/ethereum-staking/#:~:text=block%2016867030.-,P2P.org%20overview,-The%20top%203">P2P.org overview</a></li><li><a href="https://p2p.org/economy/ethereum-staking/#:~:text=Tweets%20and%20articles%20of%20the%20month">Best tweets and articles</a></li></ul><p>All the data was sourced from our own validators, <a href="http://beaconcha.in/?ref=p2p.org">beaconcha.in</a> and <a href="https://www.rated.network/?ref=p2p.org">rated.network</a>. We considered only staking providers whose information is publicly available, meaning this list isn’t a complete picture of the Ethereum staking ecosystem.</p><h1 id="network-overview">Network Overview</h1><p>As of March 2023, the total amount of Ethereum staked has reached <strong>17,963,528 ETH</strong>, which is <strong>5.26%</strong> higher than the previous month's total stake. This is a significant increase, demonstrating the growing interest in Ethereum staking. The amount staked now represents approximately <strong>15.04%</strong> of the total circulating supply of Ethereum, which is a strong indication of the confidence that investors have in the platform. It is worth noting that this is a considerable increase from just a few months ago, demonstrating the rapid growth of the Ethereum ecosystem.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/01-Network-Overview-1.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1996" height="1199" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/01-Network-Overview-1.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/04/01-Network-Overview-1.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2023/04/01-Network-Overview-1.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/01-Network-Overview-1.png 1996w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>Despite the increase in the total amount of Ethereum staked, the current network-wide average annual percentage rate (APR) for Ethereum staking is around 4.1**%**, which is a 0.0738 percentage point increase from the previous month. The consensus rewards have increased by 0.2518 points, but the execution rewards have decreased by 0.178 points due to the increase in the number of validators in the network. The table below shows the top 5 block MEV rewards.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/02-Network-Overview-2.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1978" height="669" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/02-Network-Overview-2.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/04/02-Network-Overview-2.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2023/04/02-Network-Overview-2.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/02-Network-Overview-2.png 1978w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>For investors interested in Ethereum staking, it is important to be aware and understand the risks involved. Additionally, during March, 4 <strong>validators</strong> from the network were slashed, one of which belongs to Rocket Pool</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/03-Network-Overview-3.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1978" height="584" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/03-Network-Overview-3.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/04/03-Network-Overview-3.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2023/04/03-Network-Overview-3.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/03-Network-Overview-3.png 1978w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>This highlights the risks involved in Ethereum staking and the importance of carefully selecting validators to stake with.</p><h1 id="staking-review-by-segment">Staking review by segment</h1><p>The upcoming Shanghai update for Ethereum, scheduled for April 12, has holders of liquid staking tokens eagerly anticipating how the event will impact their holdings. Prior to the update, any ETH deposits into these protocols could not be withdrawn from Ethereum's deposit-only Proof-of-Stake (PoS) system. After the Shanghai event, users will be able to unstake their ETH, sell their stakes, or migrate to a different staking service.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/04-Staking-review-by-segment-1.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1978" height="912" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/04-Staking-review-by-segment-1.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/04/04-Staking-review-by-segment-1.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2023/04/04-Staking-review-by-segment-1.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/04-Staking-review-by-segment-1.png 1978w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>For the current period, liquid staking increased to a total of 33.33%. This value is 2.38 points higher than at the beginning of the year. Conversely, CEX stacking has decreased to 27.27%, which is 2.31 points lower than at the beginning of the year. Staking pools and unidentified validators have remained almost unchanged, at 16.97% and 22.43% respectively. As we can see, at the end of February there was a big amount of ETH deposited, one of them is the largest single daily inflow ever on the Lido platform in the amount of 150,000 ETH.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/05-Staking-review-by-segment-2.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1978" height="1048" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/05-Staking-review-by-segment-2.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/04/05-Staking-review-by-segment-2.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2023/04/05-Staking-review-by-segment-2.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/05-Staking-review-by-segment-2.png 1978w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>Lido is the largest liquid staking platform, which currently has over 31% of all staked ETH. Lido's popularity can be attributed to its ease of use and its ability to provide users with a flexible and secure way to stake their ETH. It is challenging to de-anonymize all validators, including their owners and whether they belong to centralized exchanges, staking pools or e.t.c. However, with Lido, all the information about the validators is public.</p><h2 id="lido-operators">Lido operators</h2><p>When it comes to ETH staking we should not only consider the APR as an important metric but also take into account validator effectiveness, which can be an even more accurate metric. Validator effectiveness indicates how much of your validator balance is being used for attestations, and is calculated as the effective balance as a fraction of the total balance. <a href="https://p2p.org/?ref=p2p.org">P2P.org</a> published an article explaining why validator effectiveness is a better metric than APR, and providing tips on how to choose the best staking operator.</p><p>In this regard, two of the highest-performing validators in the market are Allnodes and Attestant. These validators have an effectiveness rating of 97.25%, which means they are highly efficient in terms of attestation.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/06-Lido-operators.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1978" height="1044" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/06-Lido-operators.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/04/06-Lido-operators.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2023/04/06-Lido-operators.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/06-Lido-operators.png 1978w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>The top 3 by validator effectiveness is <strong><a href="https://p2p.org/?ref=p2p.org">P2P.org</a></strong> with the highest APR in the top 5 effectiveness rating over the last 30 days. We will explore this in more detail in the next section.</p><p>We would also like to note that Staking Facilities and Everstake had the highest APR in March. Staking Facilities has an APR of 9.96%, with an execution APR of 6.07%. This value is approximately 50% higher than their average APR, due to a very large MEV block reward of around 692 ETH for block <a href="https://beaconcha.in/block/16867030?ref=p2p.org">16867030</a>.</p><h1 id="p2porg-overview">P2P.org overview</h1><p>The top 3 by validator effectiveness is <strong><a href="https://p2p.org/?ref=p2p.org">P2P.org</a></strong> with the highest APR in the top 5 effectiveness rating over the last 30 days.</p><h2 id="rewards">Rewards</h2><p>For March, all active validators on the network generated a mean rewards rate of 0.1345 ETH. The average reward of P2P’s validators was 0.1386 ETH, around 3% higher than the mean performance of all the active validators on the network</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/07-AVG-validator-rewards.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1978" height="649" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/07-AVG-validator-rewards.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/04/07-AVG-validator-rewards.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2023/04/07-AVG-validator-rewards.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/07-AVG-validator-rewards.png 1978w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>This is mostly due to P2P's enterprise-grade infrastructure, which maximizes node uptime and rewards, while also utilizing MEV-Boost to extract additional value during block production.</p><h2 id="consensus-performance">Consensus performance</h2><p>The primary metric commonly used when choosing a staking provider is APR. However, due to Ethereum’s complex rewards structure, it’s better to compare staking providers by their validator’s effectiveness rather than APR. We conducted extensive research on the topic, and you can read about it <a href="https://www.stakingrewards.com/journal/choosing-the-best-using-metrics-and-data-to-choose-the-right-ethereum-validator/?ref=p2p.org">here.</a></p><h3 id="earned">Earned</h3><p>Validators may receive fewer consensus rewards due to missed attestations and errors that result in penalties. Here, we compare the average share of rewards of the network and <a href="https://p2p.org/?ref=p2p.org">P2P.org</a>.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/08Earned.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1978" height="1225" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/08Earned.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/04/08Earned.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2023/04/08Earned.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/08Earned.png 1978w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>The network average share of consensus layer rewards was 98.29%, while that of <a href="https://p2p.org/?ref=p2p.org">P2P.org</a> is 99.18%, which is 0.89 percentage points above the network average</p><h3 id="attestation-rate-correctness">Attestation rate &amp; correctness</h3><p>The attestation rate measures how often a validator successfully attests new proposed blocks to the rest of the network. If a validator is down or cannot attest blocks for other reasons, its attestation rate and, therefore, rewards will decrease. Attestation correctness is another essential metric to consider, as it measures the accuracy of a validator's attestation. Validators must attest to the correct block or face penalties, including potential slashing. Accurate attestations are crucial for maintaining the integrity and security of the Ethereum network, making attestation correctness an essential metric to consider.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/09-Attestation-rate.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1978" height="1074" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/09-Attestation-rate.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/04/09-Attestation-rate.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2023/04/09-Attestation-rate.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/09-Attestation-rate.png 1978w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>In March, the network's average attestation rate was approximately 99.6%, while P2P's attestation rate was 99.98%, which is 0.38% higher than the network average. The network's average attestation correctness was approximately 98.91%. Meanwhile, P2P's attestation rate was 99.36%, which is 0.45% higher than the network average.</p><h2 id="execution-performance">Execution performance</h2><p>The execution layer is the layer on the Ethereum blockchain that provides the environment for applications and smart contracts to operate and process transactions within and between applications. In general, there are two types of execution layer rewards: transaction priority tips and MEV tips.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/10-Execution-performance.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1978" height="457" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/10-Execution-performance.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/04/10-Execution-performance.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2023/04/10-Execution-performance.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/10-Execution-performance.png 1978w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>There is a high risk of missing a block when the MEV relay proposes it for an extended period of time. Therefore, we create the block ourselves, which is why we haven't achieved 100% success rate. In March 2023, <a href="https://p2p.org/?ref=p2p.org">P2P.org</a> had 96.4% of the MEV blocks, with 3052 proposed blocks and a proposal rate of 99.97%. Here are the top 5 blocks with the highest MEV rewards:</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/11-to-5-mev.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1978" height="657" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/11-to-5-mev.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/04/11-to-5-mev.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2023/04/11-to-5-mev.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/11-to-5-mev.png 1978w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><h3 id="slashing">Slashing</h3><p>A slashing event occurs when a validator misbehaves on the network. This is the most severe penalty a validator can suffer, and it results in the loss of a portion of their staked tokens.</p><p>During March, P2P had no slashing occurrences. We are proud to maintain a flawless record of zero slashing events throughout our time running Ethereum validators.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/12-Execution-performance--1-.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="1978" height="509" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2023/04/12-Execution-performance--1-.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2023/04/12-Execution-performance--1-.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2023/04/12-Execution-performance--1-.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/04/12-Execution-performance--1-.png 1978w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>P2P operates validator infrastructure securely, to minimize the risk of being slashed, and provides coverage to mitigate any losses in the event of a slashing incident.</p><h1 id="tweets-and-articles-of-the-month">Tweets and articles of the month</h1><p><br>Check out P2P.org best tweets and articles for March 2023</p><ol><li> <strong>A deep dive into withdrawals</strong>. What will the post-Shapella market look like? We researched the market landscape and withdrawal documentation comprehensively to highlight the pitfalls and insights about the upcoming changes. <a href="https://twitter.com/P2Pvalidator/status/1643974124145102849?ref=p2p.org">Read the Twitter thread and check the full post here</a></li><li><strong>Choosing the best validator</strong>. Dive into our ultimate guide on choosing the best Ethereum validator for the Shanghai update Metrics, slashing insurance, SLA &amp; more. <a href="https://www.stakingrewards.com/journal/choosing-the-best-using-metrics-and-data-to-choose-the-right-ethereum-validator/?ref=p2p.org">Read article</a></li><li><strong>Calculate possible APR</strong>. Ethereum APR is highly influenced by random factors like the number of blocks created or MEV. But how do you know if your APR is good or not? We've developed an advanced APR simulator, that calculates the average expected APR and possible deviations. <a href="https://p2p.org/networks/ethereum/apr-simulator?ref=p2p.org">Try it out</a></li></ol>

Vladislav Kurenkov

from p2p validator

Ethereum Ethereum censorability monitor

<!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><p>Table of Contents</p> <ul> <li><a href="#T1"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Introduction </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T2"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Dataset and dashboard </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T3"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Building hypothesis </span></a> <ul> <li><a href="#T4"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Full sample dataset </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T5"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Truncated dataset for potentially censored transactions </span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li><a href="#T6"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Censorship analysis (10.02.2023 - 14.02.2023) </span></a> <ul> <li><a href="#T7"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Exploratory Data Analysis </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T8"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Statistical analysis </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T9"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Potentially censored sample dataset </span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li><a href="#T11"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Conclusions </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T12"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Future plans </span></a></li> </ul> <h2 id="introduction-a-namet1a">Introduction <a name="T1"></a></h2> <p>This article is our submission to Lido’s Ethereum censorability monitor grant.</p> <p>Ever since the Ethereum merge, MEV-boost has become a significant part of the ecosystem. At the same time, the US government via the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) have imposed sanctions on <a href="https://github.com/eth-educators/ethstaker-guides/blob/main/MEV-relay-list.md?ref=p2p.org">certain digital addresses</a>. MEV-relays are now divided between those which are OFAC-compliant and those which are not.</p> <p>The main goal of this article is to demonstrate the influence of this censorship on blockchain degradation and propose a solution to monitor the censorship problem in the Ethereum blockchain.</p> <p>For the purpose of this paper, we will refer to the time difference between when a transaction enters the mempool and is included in a block as &quot;delay&quot;.</p> <h2 id="dataset-and-dashboard-a-namet2a">Dataset and dashboard <a name="T2"></a></h2> <p>Our sources of data:</p> <ol> <li>Mempool public data.<br> This data was collected via a web3 python package and kept in our Data warehouse (DWH) and only one node was used (located in Europe). The data was streamed 24/7 and we parsed approximately 1-1.2m potential transactions per day. Our mempool sample covers about 95% of all transactions in the public Ethereum dataset.</li> <li><a href="https://cloud.google.com/blog/products/data-analytics/ethereum-bigquery-public-dataset-smart-contract-analytics?ref=p2p.org">Public Ethereum Dataset</a></li> <li><a href="https://github.com/eth-educators/ethstaker-guides/blob/main/MEV-relay-list.md?ref=p2p.org">Level of censorship applied by relays</a></li> <li>Block information obtained directly from Relays (e.g. <a href="https://0xac6e77dfe25ecd6110b8e780608cce0dab71fdd5ebea22a16c0205200f2f8e2e3ad3b71d3499c54ad14d6c21b41a37ae@boost-relay.flashbots.net/?ref=p2p.org">flashbots</a>)</li> <li><a href="https://github.com/ultrasoundmoney/ofac-ethereum-addresses/blob/main/README.md?ref=p2p.org">Government-sanctioned list of digital addresses</a></li> <li>Lido validator pubkeys. We used the validator dataset from Lido.</li> </ol> <p>After the data was processed, we created a large dataset. The table below contains a description of the main variables:</p> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><!--kg-card-begin: html--><table style="border:none;border-collapse:collapse;"><colgroup><col width="200"><col width="142"><col width="309"></colgroup><tbody><tr style="height:0pt"><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;text-align: center;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:700;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">Column name</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;text-align: center;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:700;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">Data type (units)</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;text-align: center;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:700;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">Description</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:0pt"><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">block_hash</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">STRING</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">Unique block identifier from the public Ethereum dataset</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:0pt"><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">transaction_hash</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">STRING</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">Unique transaction identifier from the public Ethereum dataset</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:0pt"><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">to_address</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">STRING</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">Transaction receiver</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:0pt"><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">from_address</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">STRING</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">Transaction sender</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:0pt"><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">block_timestamp</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">TIMESTAMP</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">Timestamp at which the block was created</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:0pt"><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">mempool_timestamp</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">TIMESTAMP</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">Timestamp of when we parsed the mempool transaction</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:0pt"><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">time_diff</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">BIGINT (seconds)</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">Time difference between when a transaction enters the mempool and is included in a block</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:0pt"><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">block_diff</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">INT&nbsp;</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">Number of blocks produced between when a transaction enters the mempool and is finalized&nbsp;</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:0pt"><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">gas</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">BIGINT</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">Gas allocated to the transaction&nbsp;</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:0pt"><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">gas_price</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">BIGINT</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">Gas price</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:0pt"><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">gas_fact</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">BIGINT</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">Gas spent&nbsp;</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:0pt"><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">max_fee_per_gas</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">BIGINT</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">base_fee + max_priority_fee</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:0pt"><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">max_priority_fee_per_gas</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">BIGINT</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">Additional fee to speed up transaction</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:0pt"><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">relay</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">STRING</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">Name of relay</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:0pt"><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">num_transaction</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">INT</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">Number of transactions within a block</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:0pt"><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">height</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">BIGINT</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">Serial number of the block</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:0pt"><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">builder_pubkey</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">STRING</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">Unique address of MEV-builder</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:0pt"><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">lido_validator</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">STRING</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">Company of Lido validator (null if it is not a Lido validator)</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:0pt"><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">transaction_censured_from</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">BOOLEAN</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">True if the </span><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:italic;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">sending</span><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;"> address is under the sanctioned list</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:0pt"><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">transaction_censured_to</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">BOOLEAN</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">True if the </span><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:italic;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">receiving</span><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;"> address is under the sanctioned list</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:0pt"><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">error_dummy</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">BOOLEAN</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">True if the transaction failed</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:0pt"><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">censured_relay</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">BOOLEAN</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">True if the relay is censuring transactions</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:0pt"><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">lido_validator_dummy</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">BOOLEAN</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">True if the Lido validator produces block</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:0pt"><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">mev_dummy</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">BOOLEAN</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">True if the block is produced by MEV-builders</span></p></td></tr></tbody></table><!--kg-card-end: html--><p>This dataset is available on <a href="https://console.cloud.google.com/bigquery?p=bigquery-public-data&d=covid19_open_data&page=dataset&project=&ref=p2p.org">Google BigQuery</a> in the table `p2p-data-warehouse.p2p_public.eth_mev_censored`.</p><p>Based on the data described above, we’ve created a <a href="https://reports.p2p.org/superset/dashboard/ethereum_censorability_monitor?ref=p2p.org">dashboard</a> with the main characteristics of Ethereum transactions.</p><p><strong>Dashboard description</strong></p><p>Our dashboard has 6 parts:</p><ol><li><strong><strong><strong>General data info. </strong></strong></strong>Data about transactions and blocks within the Ethereum blockchain, delay and transaction cost.</li><li><strong><strong><strong>Censorship between relays. </strong></strong></strong>Here we showcase the share of blocks for each MEV relay and the average delay for censorship and non-censorship MEV relays.</li><li><strong><strong><strong>Censorship addresses. </strong></strong></strong>Here we showcase all the available information about addresses that are under the OFAC-sanctioned list.</li><li><strong><strong><strong>Lido vs Other validators. </strong></strong></strong>Here we divide transactions between those validated by Lido and other validators for comparison. </li><li><strong>Censorship between MEV-builders</strong>. Here we showcase a few metrics for every MEV-builder in the Ethereum ecosystem.</li></ol><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="building-hypothesis-a-namet3a">Building hypothesis <a name="T3"></a></h2> <h3 id="full-sample-dataset-a-namet4a">Full sample dataset <a name="T4"></a></h3> <p>Our main goal is to estimate the level of blockchain degradation, i.e. longer time to verify transactions and higher transaction costs, that may be caused by censorship. We hypothesize that longer delays and higher transaction costs could be a sign of censorship.</p> <p>We hypothesize that our main metrics (delay and transaction costs) could be statistically different in the following subgroups:</p> <ul> <li>MEV-boost / non-MEV-boost</li> <li>Relays (OFAC-compliant/non-compliant)</li> <li>Lido validators versus others</li> </ul> <p>We also want to check the level of censorship employed by Lido validators so we are going to check the following hypothesis:</p> <ol> <li>MEV transactions may be under censorship and it can lead to a slowdown in operations compared to non-MEV.</li> <li>Delay and cost of transactions could be different between Lido validators and other validators.</li> <li>Relays that censor transactions can have a longer delay than other relays.</li> <li>OFAC-compliant relays could take longer to process transactions compared to other relays</li> <li>The probability of some transaction being included in the Nth block in the case of OFAC/not-OFAC could be different.</li> <li>The probability to be included in the OFAC block for Lido validators could be different, compared to non-Lido validators.</li> </ol> <h3 id="truncated-dataset-for-potentially-censored-transactions-a-namet5a">Truncated dataset for potentially censored transactions <a name="T5"></a></h3> <p>We want to highlight a certain amount of transactions whose high time delay could not be explained by normal network conditions. Such transactions will be suspect of being subject to censorship. To realise this, we must take into account the following transaction properties.</p> <p><strong>High delay</strong></p> <p>We will start by choosing all the transactions over a certain threshold for the time delay in seconds.</p> <p><strong>Successful transactions</strong></p> <p>Next, we will only consider successful transactions since failure could be a reason for the delay.</p> <p><strong>Low transaction fees</strong></p> <p>Another reason for a transaction to have a high delay could be low fees. That is why we should account for that and start by checking the transaction fee.</p> <p><strong>Previous transaction pending</strong></p> <p>Sometimes transactions could delayed simply because a previous transaction from the same sender had not yet finished. We use nonce parameters to exclude these transactions in our analysis.</p> <p>After forming the truncated dataset, we will try to find out the reasons for the high delay in censored transactions: government-driven or ethical censorship. We will check the receiver and sender addresses against the sanctioned list and share OFAC/ethical censoring MEV-relays. Results across the full daily dataset can be found in our dashboard.</p> <h2 id="censorship-analysis-1002202314022023-a-namet6a">Censorship analysis (10.02.2023 - 14.02.2023) <a name="T6"></a></h2> <p>The code required to reproduce our results is available <a href="https://colab.research.google.com/drive/1HdhxlRsYZnrtezLSlbIMCVfnxCiOQRF8?ref=p2p.org#scrollTo=2WYofE9GY13s">here</a></p> <h3 id="exploratory-data-analysis-a-namet7a">Exploratory Data Analysis <a name="T7"></a></h3> <p>Our sample dataset has 4 798 993 transactions and of those, 153 847 (~3%) are failed transactions.</p> <p>The delay for most transactions does not exceed 27 seconds (95% quantile) and almost every transaction has been delayed for only one block (block_diff = 1).</p> <p>Most transactions have fees with a skewness of zero. The difference between the 99.5% quantile and the 95% quantile is greater than 4 times the fee. The table below shows the transaction time delay and fees.</p> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p><strong>Main quantiles for delay and fees</strong></p><!--kg-card-begin: html--><table style="border:none;border-collapse:collapse;"><colgroup><col width="157"><col width="53"><col width="50"><col width="52"><col width="43"><col width="46"><col width="51"><col width="43"><col width="55"><col width="48"><col width="62"></colgroup><thead><tr style="height:0pt"><th style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;" scope="col"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;text-align: center;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:13pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:700;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">Variable</span></p></th><th style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;" scope="col"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;text-align: center;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:10pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">5%</span></p></th><th style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;" scope="col"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;text-align: center;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:10pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">10%</span></p></th><th style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;" scope="col"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;text-align: center;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:10pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">25%</span></p></th><th style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;background-color:#ffd966;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;" scope="col"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;text-align: center;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:10pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">50%</span></p></th><th style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;" scope="col"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;text-align: center;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:10pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">75%</span></p></th><th style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;" scope="col"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;text-align: center;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:10pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">90%</span></p></th><th style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;" scope="col"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;text-align: center;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:10pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">95%</span></p></th><th style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;background-color:#e06666;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;" scope="col"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;text-align: center;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:10pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">97.5%</span></p></th><th style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;background-color:#e06666;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;" scope="col"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;text-align: center;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:10pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">99%</span></p></th><th style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;background-color:#e06666;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;" scope="col"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;text-align: center;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:10pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">99.5%</span></p></th></tr></thead><tbody><tr style="height:0pt"><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;text-align: center;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:12pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:700;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">Delay, secs</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;text-align: center;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:12pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">1</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;text-align: center;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:12pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">2</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;text-align: center;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:12pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">4</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;background-color:#ffd966;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;text-align: center;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:12pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">8</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;text-align: center;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:12pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">10</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;text-align: center;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:12pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">15</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;text-align: center;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:12pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">27</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;background-color:#e06666;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;text-align: center;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:12pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">122</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;background-color:#e06666;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;text-align: center;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:12pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">972</span></p></td><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;background-color:#e06666;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;text-align: center;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"><span style="font-size:12pt;font-family:Arial;color:#000000;background-color:transparent;font-weight:400;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;text-decoration:none;vertical-align:baseline;white-space:pre;white-space:pre-wrap;">11984</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:0pt"><td style="border-left:solid #000000 1pt;border-right:solid #000000 1pt;border-bottom:solid #000000 1pt;border-top:solid #000000 1pt;vertical-align:top;padding:5pt 5pt 5pt 5pt;overflow:hidden;overflow-wrap:break-word;"><p dir="ltr" style="line-height:1.2;text-align: center;margin-top:0pt;margin-bottom:0pt;"></p></td></tr></tbody></table>

P2P Validator

from p2p validator

Ethereum Ethereum (ETH) Staking guide

<!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h3 id="table-of-contents">Table of Contents</h3> <ul> <li><a href="#T1"><span style=" font-size:16px"> What is Ethereum (ETH) Staking? </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T2"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Why stake Ethereum (ETH) with P2P? </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T3"><span style=" font-size:16px"> What does the Ethereum (ETH) staking process look like?<br> </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T4"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Ethereum (ETH) staking guide </span></a></li> <li><a href="#T5"><span style=" font-size:16px"> P2P Ethereum (ETH) Staking FAQ </span></a></li> </ul> <h2 id="what-is-ethereum-eth-staking-a-namet1a">What is Ethereum (ETH) Staking? <a name="T1"></a></h2> <p>When staking Ethereum (ETH) we are supporting the network with the additional benefit of earning additional ETH! Ethereum uses “Proof-of-stake” (PoS) as a consensus mechanism, where validators are responsible for reaching a consensus on adding new transaction blocks to the blockchain.</p> <p>To stake Ethereum we need a minimum of 32 ETH. This is because each validator requires 32 ETH to set up and for this same reason staking can only be done in increments of 32 ETH. For example, someone holding 320 ETH will have to set up 10 different validators. Anyone can take part in this consensus mechanism, all we have to do is run a validator (or ask to run it staking-as-a-service provider like P2P.org) and deposit 32 ETH to a special smart contract to activate a validator. This act is called staking.</p> <h2 id="why-stake-ethereum-eth-with-p2p-a-namet2a">Why stake Ethereum (ETH) with P2P? <a name="T2"></a></h2> <p>P2P has been running Ethereum validators since the launch of the Beacon Chain, in December 2020 as part of Lido Validator set. We take care of all the server maintenance and set-up.</p> <p>P2P's Ethereum staking solution is completely non-custodial and each validator is personally set up so there is never any comingling of customer's funds throughout the process.</p> <p>Those that choose to stake with P2P can also benefit from our insurance coverage against slashing events.</p> <p>In short, the benefits are:</p> <ul> <li>High performance and uptime</li> <li>Slashing insurance</li> <li>Personal staking dashboard</li> <li>Secure non-custodial staking</li> <li>Experienced DevOps team</li> <li>Part of the LIDO validator core set since inception</li> <li>24/7 monitoring of machine and protocol metrics</li> </ul> <h2 id="what-does-the-ethereum-eth-staking-process-look-like-a-namet3a">What does the Ethereum (ETH) staking process look like? <a name="T3"></a></h2> <p>To set up a validator we first need the following information:</p> <ol> <li>Specify the amount of stake - 1 validator per 32 ETH;</li> <li>The withdrawal address.</li> </ol> <p>Please note that once set, the withdrawal address cannot be changed. A different address can also be specified to receive rewards.</p> <p>Following the reception of this information, the validators are set up and a link to the deposit page will be sent out. This process can take up to 24 hours.</p> <p>Once the staking deposit is sent, the validator will be created via our <a href="https://github.com/mixbytes/audits_public/tree/master/P2P.org?ref=p2p.org">audited immutable smart contract</a>. After a period of 16 to 24 hours, the validators will become active and start earning rewards.</p> <p>Ethereum staking rewards are divided into 2 parts. Around 30% of the rewards can be withdrawn and are paid on a monthly basis while the rest is locked and can only be withdrawn after the Shanghai upgrade coming in 2023. Please note that this lock on rewards is not imposed by P2P but is a current feature of the Ethereum network.</p> <p>Once the validators are up and running P2P will set up and email each staker a personalized dashboard that can be used to track rewards and validator metrics.</p> <h2 id="ethereum-eth-staking-guide-a-namet4a">Ethereum (ETH) staking guide <a name="T4"></a></h2> <ol> <li>To start staking go to <a href="https://ethereum-staking.p2p.org/?ref=p2p.org">ethereum-staking.p2p.org</a> and click Stake now.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/01/Captura-de-ecr--2023-01-25-163236.png" alt="ETH staking"> </p> <ol start="2"> <li> <p>A new window will pop up and we can set how much ETH we want to stake and optionally a different withdrawal address. It's important to keep in mind that once the withdrawal address is set it can't be changed.</p> <p>Here we can also set up an alternative wallet to receive MEV rewards. MEV rewards constitute around 30% of the APR and are paid on a monthly basis.</p> </li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/01/Manual-stake---2-1.jpg"> </p> <ol start="3"> <li> <p>Once everything is set up, we can press continue and we will be taken to a confirmation screen. Here we have one last chance to change the withdrawal and the MEV reward address.</p> <p>After reading and accepting the Ethereum Staking Terms and the Privacy policy we can continue.</p> </li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/01/3.1.png" alt="ETH staking confirmation"> </p> <ol start="4"> <li>A confirmation screen will pop up requesting that we check our email inbox to verify our email address. The reason why an email address is required is so that P2P can send out the URL to the staking page once the validator is set up.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/01/4.png" alt="ETH staking confirmation"> </p> <ol start="5"> <li>Once the email address is verified the process of setting up a validator will begin. This process can take from 1 to 24 hours.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/01/5.png" alt="ETH staking cverify"> </p> <ol start="6"> <li> <p>After the validators are set we will receive a link to resume the staking process (this email should come from a @p2p.org domain). The next and final step is to deposit the ETH into the validators. To proceed click &quot;Send deposits&quot;.</p> <p>For clarification, the ETH is being deposited to the validators via a smart contract. This is the Ethereum equivalent of staking and is necessary to activate the validators.</p> </li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/01/Aptos-letter-1.jpg" alt="ETH staking cverify"> </p> <ol start="7"> <li> <p>Next, we need to connect our Ethereum wallet.</p> <p>This will be our personal staking page with a prepared staking transaction. What does it mean?</p> </li> </ol> <ul> <li> <p>P2P has set up the validators</p> </li> <li> <p>P2P has prepared a special deposit data file that contains information about the validators' addresses where the ETH will be deposited and the withdrawal address we have set up previously, to unstake in the future.</p> <p>All of this information is available in the Deposit data file.</p> </li> </ul> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/01/2.jpg" alt="ETH staking cverify"> </p> <ol start="8"> <li> <p>We can stake with a Metamask or a Ledger wallet. There is currently no direct support for Trezor devices. We can stake with a Trezor wallet by first connecting it to a Metamask wallet.</p> <p>Other wallets are also available but the process is more complicated. To use a different wallet please contact P2P via <a href="https://t.me/P2Pstaking?ref=p2p.org">Telegram</a>.</p> </li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/01/3.jpg" alt="ETH staking cverify"> </p> <ol start="9"> <li> <p>After connecting the wallet we can set the gas price for our ETH transaction. When staking conventionally each validator would require an individual transaction but with a smart contract, we can stake up to 100 validators with a single transaction. This greatly reduces the cost of staking and the chance of human error.</p> <p>Before signing the transaction we should once again check:</p> </li> </ol> <ul> <li>That the withdrawal address is set up correctly;</li> <li>If the recipient address in the transaction matches P2P's deposit smart contract.</li> </ul> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/01/5-1.jpg" alt="ETH staking cverify"> </p> <ol start="10"> <li>After we set the fee we just need to sign the transaction and wait for it to be processed. Once the transaction is processed we are all done. It can take from 16 to 24 hours for the validators to become active. Once they are in the active set you will get access to a personal dashboard with information about your validator metrics.</li> </ol> <p align="center"> <img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2023/01/8.jpg" alt="ETH staking cverify"> </p> <p>Those that stake Ethereum with P2P are encouraged to join a personal Telegram chat with some members of our team.</p> <p>To note that while MEV rewards are paid on a monthly basis, 1 Validator only produces on average one block every 62 days. Those staking with only 1 validator should expect their first reward after 2 months. The more validators are staked, the sooner it will happen.</p> <h2 id="p2p-ethereum-eth-staking-faq-a-namet5a">P2P Ethereum (ETH) Staking FAQ <a name="T5"></a></h2> <h3 id="do-i-need-to-pass-kyc-to-stake-eth">Do I need to pass KYC to stake ETH?</h3> <p>No, when working with P2P, there is no need to go through KYC because staked assets never touch our account and are sent directly to the Ethereum network.</p> <h3 id="what-is-the-minimum-amount-of-ethereum-required-to-stake">What is the minimum amount of Ethereum required to stake?</h3> <p>No Ethereum is necessary to run a node. However, it is necessary to stake 32 ETH x [amount of validators] to activate the validators and start getting rewards.</p> <h3 id="what-is-a-withdrawal-address-and-who-owns-it">What is a withdrawal address, and who owns it?</h3> <p>The withdrawal address is the Ethereum address used to unstake and receive rewards. This address is specified once and it can't be changed after the staking deposit is sent, because the network cements the association of a particular validator and withdrawal address. Access to the private key for this withdrawal address is required to unstake (seed phrase). It is also important to note that P2P is not a custodian and has no exposure to the client’s withdrawal private key. P2P will never ask, under any circumstance, at any time for access to the withdrawal key.</p> <h3 id="what-is-a-validator-key-and-who-owns-it">What is a validator key, and who owns it?</h3> <p>A validator key is a private key for maintaining the validator’s work (setting up validators, updating software etc.). P2P owns the validator keys and guarantees the highest standards for protecting these keys from being compromised, breached, or otherwise misused. This is accomplished through Threshold signatures, which are the gold standard for internal/external security threats. This solution is used by leading custodians, crypto banks, and Multi-Party Computation solutions.</p> <h3 id="why-use-smart-contracts-to-stake-eth">Why use smart contracts to stake ETH?</h3> <p>By design, ETH staking requires one staking transaction per 32 ETH. By using smart contracts we significantly simplify staking, reduce the cost of staking and minimize the risk of any human error. Thanks to our <a href="https://github.com/mixbytes/audits_public/tree/master/P2P.org?ref=p2p.org">audited</a> smart contracts it is possible to activate up to 100 validators with a single transaction.</p> <h3 id="can-i-stake-ethereum-with-a-hardware-wallet">Can I stake Ethereum with a hardware wallet?</h3> <p>Yes, it is possible to stake ETH with a Ledger (via native connection) or a Trezor wallet (via Metamask).</p> <h3 id="how-do-i-earn-rewards-from-staking-ethereum">How do I earn rewards from staking Ethereum?</h3> <p>Ethereum rewards are comprised of 2 parts associated with performing validation duties and block creation.</p> <ol> <li>Validation rewards are taken by performing the validator’s duties as an attestation for a block created by another validator, attestation for a block in sync committee and for creating a block. Validation rewards are accrued every 6.4 min and account for around 70% of the total rewards. Currently, these rewards aren’t withdrawable until the Shanghai upgrade. Following Shanghai, it will be possible to:</li> </ol> <ul> <li>Fully withdraw all the staked ETH + rewards and deactivate the validator;</li> <li>Partially withdraw all the Ethereum over 32 to the withdrawal address periodically.</li> </ul> <ol start="2"> <li>Block rewards (priority transaction fees + an additional fee from MEV) are accrued with block creation as a payment from transactions to the validator for including them in the block. It appears once every 62 days on average and accounts for around 30% of the total reward. MEV-boost isn’t a separate type of reward but is a technique used to build a block that will yield the maximum fee. Transaction fees accumulate on a p2p smart contract which is then automatically delivered to the client on a monthly basis after the P2P service fee has been deducted.</li> </ol> <h3 id="can-i-still-use-my-staked-ethereum-while-it-is-staked">Can I still use my staked Ethereum while it is staked?</h3> <p>No, the staked ETH is locked in the Ethereum smart contract and cannot be used.</p> <h3 id="how-does-p2p-take-its-service-fee">How does P2P take its service fee?</h3> <p>P2P takes its service fee from the execution layer rewards. By default, a special immutable smart contract is used to automatically split rewards between the user and P2P by the previously agreed rules. Other invoicing strategies can be employed by prior agreement.</p> <h3 id="how-do-i-unstake-my-ethereum">How do I unstake my Ethereum?</h3> <p>Unstaking will be available after the Shanghai upgrade, which is planned for March 2023. The ustaking time is projected to be 2-3 days depending on the number of validators that want to exit. This process consists of four steps:</p> <ol> <li>There will be an unstaking page, where it is possible to authorize the unstaking process with the withdrawal address via the click of a button.</li> <li>P2P sends the validator a voluntary exit message to the Ethereum network, and your validators move into the exit queue. The validator then ceases participating in block attestation and creation (and stops getting rewards). The exit can take from 16 to 24 hours, but right after Shanghai, this queue may be much longer.</li> <li>After exit, the validator waits 27 hours as the network wants to ensure that it hasn't been slashed.</li> <li>Finally, the validator is moved into the second and final queue. This time, the validator is totally deleted from the network and returns its ETH with consensus layer rewards. This process can take from 16 to 24 hours.</li> </ol> <h3 id="how-does-slashing-work-in-ethereum">How does slashing work in Ethereum?</h3> <p>Slashing punishes validators for actions that are very difficult to do accidentally, and it’s very likely a sign of malicious intent. It’s a really rare event: there's only been 5 slashed validators within the whole network over the last month (or 0.001%). <a href="https://beaconcha.in/validators/slashings?ref=p2p.org">beaconcha.in/validators/slashings</a></p> <p>What is “slashable” behaviour? In a nutshell, it’s a violation of consensus rules in the network. As of right now, it needs to meet three conditions: proposal of two conflicting blocks at the same time, double vote attestation and surround attestation. This can happen due to either an intentional malicious action or misconfiguration of the validator (the most often being, running two of the same validators in the network).</p> <p>Slashing results in burning 1,0 ETH at once, and removing the validator from the network forever, which takes 36 days. During this time, the validator continues to work but can no longer participate in validation and block creation, getting a penalty of around 0.1 ETH in total.</p> <p>For the most part that's the sum of the penalty incurred, but there is also an additional midpoint (Day 18) penalty that scales with the number of slashed validators. This is called &quot;correlation penalty” and it's currently only theoretical and has never been encountered on the Ethereum mainnet. This mechanism is there to protect the network from large attacks. The math for calculation penalty is pretty complicated, but the summary is if there are only 1, 100, or even 1000 slashed validators within 36 days the penalty will equal zero ETH. However, if the number of slashed validators increases to roughly 1.1% of all validators (currently 5.1k), this penalty becomes 1 ETH and an additional 1 ETH for every additional 1.1% validator slashed. So if 1/3 of the network is slashed, the penalty will nullify the whole stake (32 ETH). This mechanism is in place to prevent an attack on the network and it should never be triggered by accident.</p> <h3 id="how-can-slashing-be-prevented">How can slashing be prevented?</h3> <p>There are special mechanisms in place to prevent validators from meeting the slashing conditions called <a href="https://medium.com/prysmatic-labs/eth2-slashing-prevention-tips-f6faa5025f50?ref=p2p.org">slashing protection</a>. These mechanisms usually consist of a database with a signing history which the validator uses to check if the block can be signed (coupled with the default levels of monitoring and alerting protection). Additional protection levels will depend on the validator’s setup. P2P uses double-checking with a separate database at the key-manager stage and secures validators' key’s by Threshold, which means that no single person, even a P2P engineer, can run a second validator and a quorum is required for that. The final level of protection we have in place is an institutional grade slashing insurance.</p> <h3 id="how-can-staking-activity-be-tracked">How can staking activity be tracked?</h3> <p>Anyone who stakes with P2P gets access to a personal staking dashboard that can be used to track rewards and the validators' performance (APR, staking balance, % of blocks created with MEV, attestation rate, missed block, market comparisons, etc.)</p> <h3 id="in-what-geographic-location-is-p2ps-validator-infrastructure-running">In what geographic location is P2P's validator infrastructure running?</h3> <p>P2P direct staking infrastructure is located in Europe and distributed among 5 separate physical locations for protection from downtime.</p> <h3 id="how-does-p2p-protect-its-validators-from-widespread-outages">How does P2P protect its validators from widespread outages?</h3> <p>P2P validators have no single point of failure and are downtime resistant with back-ups of all critical infrastructure parts between 5 different physical locations, including:</p> <ol> <li> <p>Signing infrastructure - 3 location-independent key managers with 2-of-3 threshold quorum required for consensus;</p> </li> <li> <p>Validators Nodes - we have a reserve in a secure region ready to be activated within a maximum of 1 minute in case of an outage;</p> </li> <li> <p>Consensus layer nodes - our setup has top-3 consensus layer clients (Lighthouse, Prysm, Teku) simultaneously for diversity and preventing outrages related to soft bugs in one client. It also increases availability for validators.</p> </li> </ol> <!--kg-card-end: markdown-->

P2P Validator

from p2p validator

Ethereum Ethereum 2.0 staking - The Beginners Guide

<!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h1 id="table-of-contents">Table of Contents</h1> <ul> <li><span style=" font-size:16px"> Ethereum 2.0 staking - The Beginners Guide </span> <ul> <li><a href="#T1"><span style=" font-size:16px"> What Is Ethereum 2.0?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T2"><span style=" font-size:16px"> What Is Ethereum 2.0 (ETH) Staking?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T3"><span style=" font-size:16px">Why Stake Ethereum for Ethereum 2.0?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T4"><span style=" font-size:16px">How Does Ethereum 2.0 (ETH) Staking Work?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T5"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Ethereum 2.0 (ETH) Staking Rewards &amp; Fees</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T6"><span style=" font-size:16px"> How Much Do You Make Staking Ethereum?</span></a> <ul> <li><a href="#T7"><span style=" font-size:16px"> When do I get my staking rewards?</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li><a href="#T8"><span style=" font-size:16px"> How do I Track My ETH 2.0 Staking Rewards?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T9"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Unstaking Period Ethereum (ETH)</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T10"><span style=" font-size:16px"> How to Stake Ethereum (ETH)?</span></a> <ul> <li><a href="#T11"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Solo Staking</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T12"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Staking as a Service</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T13"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Pooled Staking</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T14"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Centralized Exchanges</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T15"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Why Stake Ethereum with P2P?</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li><a href="#T16"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Possible Risks of Staking ETH</span></a> <ul> <li><a href="#T17"><span style=" font-size:16px"> What Will Ethereum 2.0 Value Be?</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li><a href="#T18"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Conclusion</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li><a href="#T19"><span style=" font-size:16px"> ETH 2.0 Staking FAQ</span></a> <ul> <li><a href="#T20"><span style=" font-size:16px"> What is Ethereum?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T21"><span style=" font-size:16px"> What is the Ethereum staking APR?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T22"><span style=" font-size:16px"> How often are staking rewards distributed?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T23"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Is there an unstaking period?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T24"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Is there a slashing risk for validators?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T25"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Is there a minimum staking amount for Ethereum?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T26"><span style=" font-size:16px"> Do staking rewards compound?</span></a></li> <li><a href="#T27"><span style=" font-size:16px"> What is the Ethereum inflation rate?</span></a></li> </ul> </li> </ul> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>The Ethereum ecosystem has been gaining immense popularity in the last few years. This blockchain platform hosts a variety of DeFi projects and NFTs, while its native coin, ETH, remains the second largest cryptocurrency by market capitalization. Ethereum Foundation, the non-profit organization that supports this system, continuously attempts to improve the Ethereum network, making it more scalable, sustainable, and secure. </p><p>One of the most significant changes that Ethereum is undergoing now is the introduction of Ethereum 2.0, which implies a switch from the Proof-of-Work (PoW) to the Proof-of-Stake (PoS) protocol. This upgrade is aimed at solving the problem of fast-growing transaction costs (aka gas costs) and colossal energy consumption by shifting from mining to a staking mechanism. In this article, we will dive deeper into Ethereum 2.0, outline its key features, and provide you with all the important details on how to stake Ethereum (ETH).</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="what-is-ethereum-20a-namet1a">What is Ethereum 2.0?<a name="T1"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh4.googleusercontent.com/SFTx3GHk7QKfs9OyQyk6Y8wLw6LZZPGQJpvB9Cau4pAJi_v5imj0zEDCnelYD_YSPqTbIrq8wtMTNCNcZ_pGM8H98Ka9JQd1zY_i70USWJhNTGAFpeE4nt_r4Mtn9YSRerWeULV3T4ySwdfCKcST2wA" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy"></figure><p>Ethereum 2.0 (also called Serenity or ETH2) is a number of updates planned by the Ethereum Foundation which are going to result in the ETH network moving from the PoW to PoS consensus protocol. The primary goal of this major network improvement is to solve the issues of scalability, high transaction fees, and energy consumption that have been plaguing Ethereum (ETH) since its inception. <br>The Ethereum Foundation has been working on these long-awaited upgrades for several years now. The first change happened in 2020 when the Beacon Chain was introduced. It opened the possibility of ETH staking. Another upgrade called “The Merge” is planned to occur in 2022. This step will unite ETH1 (the  execution layer) and ETH2 (the consensus layer) into one network. The total shift to the Proof-of-Stake mechanism is expected to finish in 2023 - 2024.<br></p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="what-is-ethereum-20-eth-staking-a-namet2a">What is Ethereum 2.0 (ETH) Staking? <a name="T2"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>The Proof-of-Work (PoW) consensus algorithm used by the current Ethereum ecosystem implies that miners validate transactions and add new blocks to the blockchain in exchange for rewards paid in ETH. <em>Although this approach has proven to be secure, it has some significant pitfalls. <br></em></p><ol><li><em><strong>Huge energy consumption.</strong> PoW is quite resource-intensive as it requires expensive hardware and a lot of electricity to power it. <br></em></li><li><em><strong>Ever-growing gas costs.</strong> As the network expands, the transaction fees increase. <br></em></li><li><em><strong>Limited scalability. </strong>The current Ethereum network can only process around 15 transactions per second.</em></li></ol><p><br>These issues can be resolved as soon as the Proof-of-Stake mechanism comes out. PoS is a much more efficient and eco-friendly way of validating transactions and adding new blocks to the blockchain. In this approach, instead of mining, there is a staking process in which users stake their Ethereum to validate transactions and earn rewards. As there is no need for expensive hardware or enormous amounts of electricity, PoS is much cheaper and more sustainable than PoW. <em>Moreover, as stakers can validate transactions much faster, Ethereum’s scalability will also improve.</em></p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="why-stake-ethereum-for-ethereum-20-a-namet3a">Why stake Ethereum for Ethereum 2.0? <a name="T3"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>Every ETH holder might wonder why it’s worth staking. Let’s consider the core reasons.</p><ol><li><strong>Extra income.</strong> Staking is a great way to earn passive returns. As long as you keep your ETH staked, you will continue to receive a percentage of rewards.</li><li><strong>Ethereum network development.</strong> This is one of the ways to support the Ethereum ecosystem and its shifting to the PoS consensus algorithm. If you stake your ETH, you help to secure the network and make it more scalable.</li><li><strong>Sustainability.</strong> Staking is eco-friendly. Unlike mining, it doesn’t require heavy energy consumption.</li><li><strong>Easy to start.</strong> Anyone with a computer can become a staker. It’s not necessary to have expensive hardware or much capital to get started.</li></ol><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="how-does-ethereum-20-eth-staking-work-a-namet4a">How does Ethereum 2.0 (ETH) Staking work? <a name="T4"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>ETH staking implies adding new blocks to the Ethereum blockchain. A user must deposit 32 ETH to become a full validator who is responsible for processing transactions, storing data, and adding blocks. The reward is earned for correctly validated transactions. If a validator submits fraudulent transactions or breaks the network rules, they are punished with a process known as slashing, which means that they could lose part of their investment and be kicked out of the ETH ecosystem.</p><p>There are some alternative ways to participate in staking. If a user doesn’t want to get into the details of this reward-earning approach or deal with hardware, they could make use of staking-as-a-service. For users who are limited in capital, there is an option of pooled staking. However, it’s crucial to remember that these techniques come with certain risks, especially related to the counterparty.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="ethereum-20-eth-staking-rewards-fees-a-namet5a">Ethereum 2.0 (ETH) Staking Rewards &amp; Fees <a name="T5"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>In staking, the amount of the reward is variable. It depends on factors such as the total amount of ETH staked, the length of time it is staked for, and the overall inflation rate. For example, if you stake your ETH for a shorter period, you will receive less reward than if you stake it for a longer time. However, as long as you keep your ETH staked, you will continue to receive rewards regularly. Most commonly, users who stake their ETH take a reward of about 8% Annual Percentage Rate (APR). This means that if you stake 1 Ethereum, you will have 1.08 ETH at the end of the year.<br>When it comes to the fees, everything depends on the platform the staker is using. The amount can greatly vary. For example, Lido takes 10% for ETH staking, Coinbase has a 25% fee, while <a href="https://p2p.org/networks/ethereum?ref=p2p.org">P2P</a> charges a 10% fee.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="how-much-do-you-make-staking-ethereum-a-namet6a">How Much Do You Make Staking Ethereum? <a name="T6"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>As previously mentioned, the amount of money that can be earned from staking Ethereum can vary depending on several factors. The size of the reward is impacted by the amount of ETH that is being staked - the more ETH, the higher the potential reward. Another important factor to take into account is the time the Ethereum is being staked for - a longer period will typically result in more significant profits. In addition, it is also important to consider the current interest rate on Ethereum. The higher it is, the more money can be earned from staking this cryptocurrency. Currently, the average reward from ETH staking fluctuates between 3% - 8% paid annually.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h3 id="when-do-i-get-my-staking-rewards-a-namet7a">When do I get my staking rewards? <a name="T7"></a></h3> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>An Ethereum staker gets a reward after each epoch, which usually lasts 6.5 minutes on average. However, it’s important to note that the user should be active during this time to receive it, meaning that they should be online and validating.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="how-do-i-track-my-eth-20-staking-rewards-a-namet8a">How Do I Track My ETH 2.0 Staking Rewards? <a name="T8"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>To track Ethereum staking rewards, the user needs to find their staking address. It’s possible to do it in two ways:</p><ul><li>Find it via transaction history in the blockchain explorer (a tool that allows users to view information about a particular blockchain).<br></li><li>Get the staking address from the wallet and then insert it in the blockchain explorer to find the related information.</li></ul><p>Overall, the process of tracking your ETH 2.0 staking rewards is relatively simple and can be done using either a blockchain explorer or one of the multiple tools that help to track rewards.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="unstaking-period-for-ethereum-eth-a-namet9a">Unstaking period for Ethereum (ETH) <a name="T9"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>The unstaking or undelegation period is the time users must wait to withdraw their ETH if they want to stop staking. This period is required to ensure that all the rewards that have been earned are properly distributed. <br><br>On Ethereum, it is currently not possible to unstake your assets, once they are staked. Withdrawal of staked assets will be enabled in 2023 with the Shanghai upgrade. The unstaking period is variable and depends on how much ETH is queued to be unstaked at the time.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="how-to-stake-ethereum-a-namet10a">How to stake Ethereum? <a name="T10"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>There are a few different ways a user can stake Ethereum. Let’s have a look at them.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h3 id="solo-staking-a-namet11a">Solo staking <a name="T11"></a></h3> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>Solo staking means that users stake their ETH and do not pool it with others. This approach comes with the maximum reward since it is not shared with other users. For this type of staking, it’s necessary to invest 32 ETH and have a robust computer with a constant internet connection.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h3 id="staking-as-a-service-a-namet12a">Staking as a service <a name="T12"></a></h3> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>This is an easier way for users to participate in staking without having to set up their own validators or run any special software. Instead, they simply deposit their ETH into the provider's smart contract. This model allows for earning rewards without having to bear the full costs and risks of running a validator node. Although Ethereum staking service providers typically charge a small fee, this is often offset by the higher rewards that they offer.</p><p>Staking as a service exists in three forms: custodial, semi-custodial, and non-custodial.<br></p><ul><li><strong>Custodial service providers</strong> completely manage the staking process. They own the users’ validator and withdrawal keys.</li><li><strong>Semi-custodial service providers</strong> don’t hold users’ withdrawal keys, and thus don’t have access to the customer funds, but they do hold users' validator keys.</li><li><strong>Non-custodial service providers</strong> allow users to earn interest on their Ethereum holdings without having to give up control of their private keys.<br></li></ul><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h3 id="pooled-staking-a-namet13a">Pooled Staking <a name="T13"></a></h3> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>Pooled staking is when users pool their Ethereum together to have a better chance of validating blocks and earning rewards. This is a great way for users to earn rewards without having to stake 32 ETH. However, it’s crucial to remember that it’s not a native staking method, and thus it comes with increased third-party risks.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h3 id="centralized-exchanges-a-namet14a">Centralized Exchanges <a name="T14"></a></h3> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>This staking method has gained particular popularity among ETH holders. A centralized exchange is a suitable choice for users who don’t feel comfortable holding Ethereum in their wallets and managing their keys. Although centralized exchanges typically offer higher rewards than other methods of staking, they also come with the risk of losing ETH if the exchange is hacked or becomes insolvent.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h3 id="why-stake-ethereum-with-p2p-a-namet15a">Why stake Ethereum with P2P? <a name="T15"></a></h3> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p><a href="https://p2p.org/networks/ethereum?ref=p2p.org">P2P</a> provides non-custodial services for Ethereum (ETH) staking. As previously mentioned, this means that users keep full control of their assets and the platform doesn’t have access to their private keys. </p><p><a href="https://p2p.org/?ref=p2p.org">P2P</a> is a cutting-edge solution that provides its customers with top-notch security, transparency, and strong community support. When it comes to ETH staking rewards and fees, after The Merge, it offers its users a ~8% APR and charges a 10% validator fee. By staking before The Merge, a 0.1 ETH flat fee is charged for every 32 ETH.</p><p>New and existing clients can benefit from a 0% validator fee per quarter when staking more than 320 ETH.<br>P2P is one of the leading Node Operators at LIDO, running thousands of nodes for almost 2 years. By opting for this ETH staking solution, users receive high-quality service and 24/7 expert account monitoring and support.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="possible-risks-of-staking-eth-a-namet16a">Possible risks of staking ETH <a name="T16"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/yboZPMkuwLYbqf0ogKAcgMLlQMbdiWl3y1A9VodxcUbzSvlxLMzwm247h7hwtclbKy8sSqlyjlilukqMcr-f-fs97vBjqoU6ZSijj6cUtQQfkqhyuNXtb9fcMaExSJqjp8lcqZgpyrOwX-aHiv2mqcI" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy"></figure><p>If you decide to stake your ETH, it’s important to be aware of the risks related to this approach. Let’s have a look at the most significant ones:<br></p><ol><li><strong>Unclear price of ETH 2.0.</strong> The value of Ethereum 2.0 will undoubtedly differ from the current Ethereum price. If it goes down, you will still earn rewards for staking, but the overall value of your investment will decrease. However, if Ethereum 2.0 turns out to be successful, its value is likely to increase along with your potential rewards.<br></li><li><strong>Unstaking.</strong> Users will not be able to withdraw their staked Ethereum by the time Ethereum 2.0 is completely released. This could take a couple of years. Currently, the Ethereum Foundation has scheduled the terminal stage for 2023-2024.<br></li><li><strong>Slashing.</strong> This is the risk of losing some funds. Slashing is a penalty imposed on stakers who fail to comply with the network rules or validate fraudulent transactions.<br></li><li><strong>Private key loss.</strong> If a user loses their private keys, they will not be able to access their ETH, and thus will not be able to earn rewards.<br></li></ol><p>While all these risks are possible, they are also relatively unlikely if you are well aware of the features and limitations of this approach.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h3 id="what-will-ethereum-20-value-be-a-namet17a">What will Ethereum 2.0 Value Be? <a name="T17"></a></h3> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>Different crypto experts have various expectations about the Ethereum price in the short- and long-term perspective. However, the majority of them agree that the improvements related to Ethereum 2.0 will push this crypto to enter a bullish market. </p><p><a href="https://coinpedia.org/information/market-price-prediction-ethereum-2019/?ref=p2p.org">Coinpedia</a> expects Ethereum to be traded at about $5,000 at the end of 2023. Moreover, if the ETH 2.0 release turns out to be successful, the value of this crypto could hit a maximum of around $11,000 in 2025.<br><br><a href="https://coinpriceforecast.com/ethereum-forecast-2020-2025-2030?ref=p2p.org">Coin Price forecast</a> also has a positive forecast for the Ethereum price. However, it’s more reserved. This platform believes that ETH will reach the level of about $2,200 by the end of 2022 and will continue growing, approaching $2,800 in 2025.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="conclusion-a-namet18a">Conclusion <a name="T18"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>Ethereum staking could be a great way of gaining extra income. Moreover, this process, in contrast to mining, comes with significantly improved scalability, security, and sustainability. However, before making any decision, it’s crucial to be aware of the risks involved. One of the main issues to take into account is that users will not able to withdraw their staked Ethereum by the time Ethereum 2.0 is completely released.<br><br>If you decide that the advantages of this approach outweigh its potential risks, you need to choose among the several possible ways to stake Ethereum and commence your journey.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h1 id="eth-20-staking-faq-a-namet19a">ETH 2.0 Staking FAQ <a name="T19"></a></h1> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="what-is-ethereuma-namet20a">What is Ethereum?<a name="T20"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>Ethereum is a decentralized, open-source blockchain featuring smart contract functionality. Its native token, ETH, is the second largest crypto by market cap after Bitcoin. Ethereum is a unique platform that serves as a home for many decentralized applications and NFTs. Currently, the network is undergoing some significant changes which will result in shifting from a Proof-of-Work to a Proof-of-Stake mechanism.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="what-is-the-ethereum-staking-apr-a-namet21a">What is the Ethereum staking APR? <a name="T21"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>In Ethereum staking, the reward may vary depending on the amount of ETH invested, the time it is staked for, the inflation rate, and more. However, the average Ethereum staking yield is about 5.4%.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="how-often-are-staking-rewards-distributed-a-namet22a">How often are staking rewards distributed? <a name="T22"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>Ethereum staking rewards are distributed by stakers every 24 hours. The amount of the rewards depends on the number of ETH tokens staked, the time they are staked for, inflation, and more. However, typically it is around 4% per year.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="is-there-an-unstaking-period-a-namet23a">Is there an unstaking period? <a name="T23"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>Unstaking Ethereum or any other crypto means taking these coins out of the staking pool. There is no unstaking period in the Ethereum network, and your tokens will be transferable immediately upon unstaking. Note that once you have unstaked your coins, they are no longer eligible for staking rewards.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="is-there-a-slashing-risk-for-validators-a-namet24a">Is there a slashing risk for validators? <a name="T24"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>Yes, there is such a risk. Slashing is a type of punishment imposed on users who don’t comply with network regulations or submit fraudulent transactions. This could result in a user losing some of their funds or even being kicked out of the network.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="is-there-a-minimum-staking-amount-for-ethereum-a-namet25a">Is there a minimum staking amount for Ethereum? <a name="T25"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>In general, there is no minimum amount to stake Ethereum. However, there could be some minimum requirements set by individual staking pools. P2P users don’t have to provide any minimum ETH staking amount.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="do-staking-rewards-compound-a-namet26a">Do staking rewards compound? <a name="T26"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>No, Ethereum staking rewards don't compound; most smart contracts do not allow for compounding rewards. This means that users cannot gain interest on their interest.</p><!--kg-card-begin: markdown--><h2 id="what-is-the-ethereum-inflation-rate-a-namet27a">What is the Ethereum inflation rate? <a name="T27"></a></h2> <!--kg-card-end: markdown--><p>The annual Ethereum supply is limited to 18,000,000. This means that its inflation rate has to decrease each year. As a result, in 2022, Ethereum inflation dropped from 1.10% to 0.51% during the first quarter.</p><p></p><p></p>

P2P Validator

from p2p validator

Ethereum Ethereum 2.0 FAQ

<p>If you are looking for information about The Merge we've got you covered. Below you can find answers to the most common questions about the upcoming Ethereum upgrade. </p><p></p><h3 id="what-is-ethereum-20">What is Ethereum 2.0?</h3><p>Ethereum 2.0 (ETH2) is a set of upgrades that looks to make Ethereum more scalable, secure and sustainable.</p><h3 id="will-ethereum-be-renamed-after-the-merge">Will Ethereum be renamed after The Merge?</h3><p>No, Ethereum will still be Ethereum and no new cryptocurrencies will be created. The ticker for the Ethereum token will remain the same, ETH.</p><p>This misconception comes from the fact that for a time ETH on the mainnet was referred to as ETH1 and ETH on the Beacon Chain was referred to as ETH2. After The Merge however only ETH will exist.</p><h3 id="what-are-the-major-differences-between-current-ethereum-and-ethereum-20">What are the major differences between current Ethereum and Ethereum 2.0?</h3><p>There are two big changes happening with the introduction of ETH2.</p><p>The first one will be a shift from Proof of work (PoW) to Proof of Stake (PoS). The second one will be the introduction of shard chains. </p><h3 id="what-is-the-difference-between-proof-of-work-pow-and-proof-of-stake-pos">What is the difference between Proof of Work (PoW) and Proof of Stake (PoS)?</h3><p>PoW is a consensus mechanism that relies on computational power and the expenditure of energy to validate transactions on a blockchain. In PoS validators use capital to validate transactions. This not only helps alleviate environmental concerns associated with PoW but also improves security and scalability.</p><h3 id="when-will-eth2-launch">When will ETH2 launch?</h3><p>The ETH2 launch will be segmented into phases. </p><p>The first phase occurred in December 2020 with the launch of the <strong>Beacon Chain</strong>. The launch of the Beacon Chain marked an important milestone in the road to ETH2, introducing PoS to Ethereum.</p><p>The next phase is called <strong>The Merge</strong> and it is scheduled to happen on September 19, 2022. The Merge represents the fusion of the current Ethereum mainnet with the Beacon Chain. This update will replace the current Proof of Work consensus mechanism with Proof of Stake.</p><p><strong>Shard chains</strong> are a scalability mechanism through which the blockchain is divided among many different nodes thus allowing transactions to be processed in parallel instead of consecutively. This helps drastically improve the network amount of transactions per second. This upgrade is currently expected to launch somewhere in 2023 following The Merge. There has been no confirmed date yet but be on the lookout for announcements.</p><h3 id="what-will-happen-to-my-ethereum">What will happen to my Ethereum?</h3><p>You won’t need to do anything with your Ethereum. The Merge was set up to be a seamless transition for the average user.</p><h3 id="what-is-ethereum-expected-staking-apr-after-the-merge">What is Ethereum expected staking APR after The Merge?</h3><p>The current APR before The Merge is around 4%. After The Merge the best estimates place the APR between the range of 7-11%. </p><p>You can find a more comprehensive answer to this question <a href="https://blog.lido.fi/modelling-the-entry-queue-post-merge-an-analysis-of-impacts-on-lidos-socialized-model/?ref=p2p.org">here</a>.</p><h3 id="will-there-be-a-proof-of-work-fork-of-ethereum-after-the-merge-can-i-get-tokens-on-the-new-chain-if-i-stake-them">Will there be a Proof-of-Work fork of Ethereum after The merge? Can I get tokens on the new chain if I stake them?</h3><p>Yes, there most likely will be a fork of Ethereum after The Merge. Staked Ethereum will probably also not be counted towards getting new tokens in the forked chain.</p><p>There are pros in choosing to stake early rather than wait for the fork. As more ETH gets staked the less rewards are available for each validator. Due to the expected increase in staking APR post-merge one can capture this yield by staking early.</p><p>By waiting to stake one can also risk being caught up in the staking queue that can form if a large number of validators are trying to be created at the same time. This can push the current waiting period to start earning rewards, which currently goes up to 7 days, to a 2 to 4 months waiting period. </p><p>The calculation being made here is between the profit earned from the tokens on the new chain versus the loss of staking rewards for 2 to 4 months.</p><h3 id="what-is-the-minimum-amount-of-eth-i-can-stake">What is the minimum amount of ETH I can stake?</h3><p>You don’t need any Ethereum to run a node. However to validate blocks and earn staking rewards you need to stake at least 32 ETH.</p><p>Running a non-block-producing node is still incentivized since it improves network security.</p><h3 id="how-often-are-staking-rewards-distributed">How often are staking rewards distributed? </h3><p>Withdrawals from the Beacon Chain are not enabled so rewards are not being distributed just yet. You can still earn rewards however. </p><h3 id="will-i-be-able-to-earn-mev-rewards-from-staking">Will I be able to earn MEV rewards from staking?</h3><p>Yes, our APR estimates include MEV rewards.</p><h3 id="is-there-a-slashing-risk-for-validators">Is there a slashing risk for Validators?</h3><p>Yes, there is slashing risk to prevent malicious actions on the network.</p><h3 id="do-staking-rewards-compound">Do staking rewards compound?</h3><p>No, staking rewards do not compound because withdrawals from the Beacon Chain will not be enabled just yet.</p><h3 id="will-the-network-experience-any-downtime-during-the-merge">Will the network experience any downtime during The Merge?</h3><p>No, the network will not experience any downtime. The upgrade was designed to cause no disruption to the network.</p><h3 id="will-the-gas-fees-reduce-after-the-merge">Will the gas fees reduce after The Merge?</h3><p>No, The Merge changes the consensus mechanism from PoW to PoS. Gas fees are dictated by the network usage, future updates will look to address gas fees.</p><h3 id="will-transactions-be-faster-after-the-merge">Will transactions be faster after The Merge?</h3><p>It’s very unlikely. The Merge focus is not on scalability, future upgrades to the network will focus on scalability.<br></p><p>If you are interested in staking Ethereum with P2P, please email us at <a href="mailto:[email protected]" rel="noopener noreferrer">[email protected]</a>.</p><hr><p>About P2P Validator</p><p><a href="https://p2p.org/?ref=p2p.org">P2P Validator</a> is a world-leading staking provider with the best industry security  practices and proven expertise. We provide comprehensive due-diligence  of digital assets and offer only high class staking opportunities. At the time of the latest update, <strong><strong><strong><strong>more than </strong></strong>2.9<strong><strong> billion of USD value is staked with P2P Validator by over 2</strong></strong>5<strong><strong>,000 delegators across 25+ networks.</strong></strong></strong></strong></p><p>Want to stake Ethereum with us? Visit <a href="https://p2p.org/networks/ethereum?ref=p2p.org">p2p.org/networks/ethereum</a>  to find out more about Ethereum staking.</p><p>If you have any questions, feel free to join our<a href="https://t.me/P2Pstaking?ref=p2p.org"> Telegram chat</a>, we are always open for communication.</p>

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Marlin, Guide, Matic, Ethereum Tutorial: Transferring MPOND from Matic to Ethereum

<p>The following is a step-by-step guide to transferring MPONDs earned in FlowMint stakedrop from Matic to Ethereum, and staking them using the Marlin network for an approximate APR of 10-12%.</p><h3 id="adding-mpond-to-metamask">Adding MPOND to MetaMask</h3><ol><li>To begin, you must <a href="https://p2p.org/economy/how-to-claim-mpond-during-flowmint-stakedrop/">harvest your MPOND</a> from FlowMint stakedrop.</li><li>To see your MPONDs on the MetaMask on Matic, add the MPOND token as a Custom Token in the MetaMask settings. To do so, navigate to MetaMask, click 'Add Token' and input the contract code below:</li></ol><p> MPOND contract - <strong>0x27B064fE4B708fDa0fD0C4ff2b78a1e4DAB812D1</strong>.</p><h3 id="transferring-mpond-from-matic-to-metamask">Transferring MPOND from Matic to MetaMask</h3><ol><li>To begin the process, go to <a href="https://wallet.matic.network/bridge?ref=p2p.org">wallet.matic.network/bridge</a> and connect your MetaMask using the Matic Network add-in.</li></ol><p>When prompted, select the following options:</p><ul><li><em>From Matic to Ethereum</em></li><li><em>Transfer Mode: PoS Bridge</em></li><li><em>Token: Marlin (Mpond)</em></li></ul><p>After configuring details, press Transfer.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/-EPHar6mXzR9g4b_aUHtuwoYeNopbVCum-9xgKtG2oYHAogiNDx8kA39im7CPhDp08P9uywP7hMABMUWXYT2hyes8q2Xk-PUmsUW4ZsiWhdvCi4vXVUY4KfcZCBREuevG0iAeT57" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy"></figure><p><br>After pressing transfer you will be prompted with a transaction overview screens. Press continue as in the screenshots pictured below. </p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2021/04/image-2.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="2000" height="915" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2021/04/image-2.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2021/04/image-2.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2021/04/image-2.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w2400/2021/04/image-2.png 2400w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>After confirming the transaction, you have to wait for the initialisation process. You can see the transaction status in the upper right corner. After a successful confirmation, you will pay fee in MATIC.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2021/04/image-1.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="2000" height="774" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2021/04/image-1.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2021/04/image-1.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2021/04/image-1.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w2400/2021/04/image-1.png 2400w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>Once the "Checkpoint" has arrived [see image on the right above], switch the network in the MetaMask settings from Matic to Ethereum and click Continue.</p><p>Sign the transaction on the Ethereum network to initiate the withdrawal of MPOND tokens from Matic to Ethereum.</p><figure class="kg-card kg-image-card"><img src="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/2021/04/image-3.png" class="kg-image" alt loading="lazy" width="2000" height="1072" srcset="https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w600/2021/04/image-3.png 600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1000/2021/04/image-3.png 1000w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w1600/2021/04/image-3.png 1600w, https://p2p.org/economy/content/images/size/w2400/2021/04/image-3.png 2400w" sizes="(min-width: 720px) 720px"></figure><p>After the transaction is signed, you will receive the MPOND tokens on the Ethereum network.  To see the MPOND token in Metamask, use the MPOND contract address on the Ethereum network.  </p><p>MPOND contract address: 0x1C77d15857646687005dbbAfFf5873F4495a9731</p><p>Now you can stake your MPOND tokens! </p><p>Use the following tutorial to <a href="https://p2p.org/economy/stake-pond-with-marlin/">stake your POND/MPOND tokens with P2P Validator</a>.</p><hr><p><strong><strong>If you have any questions, </strong>please stop by the<strong> </strong><a href="https://t.me/P2Pstaking?ref=p2p.org">P2P T<strong>elegram</strong></a>.</strong></p><hr><h3 id="about-p2p-validator"><strong>About P2P Validator</strong></h3><p>P2P Validator is a world-leading non-custodial staking provider securing more than $3.2 billion from over 10,000 delegators across 25+ high-class staking networks. </p><h3 id="learn-more-">Learn more:</h3><p><strong>Web</strong>: <a href="https://p2p.org/?utm_source=blog&utm_campaign=sol_guide">p2p.org</a><br><strong>Twitter</strong>: <a href="https://twitter.com/P2Pvalidator?ref=p2p.org">@p2pvalidator</a><br><strong>LinkedIn</strong>: <a href="https://www.linkedin.com/company/p2p-org/?ref=p2p.org">linkedin.com/company/p2p-org</a><br><strong>Telegram</strong>: <a href="https://t.me/P2Pstaking?ref=p2p.org">t.me/P2Pstaking</a></p>

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